Bioelectricity (or bioelectromagnetism) relates to the study of biological electrical currents, and bioimpedance deals with the measurement of electrical conductivity. They are intimately linked to biomedical engineering, with major significance for development of novel medical devices, as well as the study of biological rhythms. This completely updated new edition remains the most comprehensive reference tool for this intricate, interdisciplinary field. The authors, both internationally recognized experts in the field, have thoroughly revised the entire text. It remains the only such work that discusses in detail dielectric and electrochemical aspects, as well as electrical engineering concepts of network theory. The highly effective, easy to follow organization has been retained, with new discussion of state-of-the-art advances in finite element analysis, endogenic sources, control theory, tissue electrical properties, and invasive measurements. There are two all new chapters on bioelectricity, along with an introduction to Geselowitz theory, the Maxwell basis of bioimpedance, and multivariate analysis as an alternative. * Increased emphasis on bioelectricity and potential clinical applications * Two all new chapters dealing with electrical properties of passive and excitable tissue * Expanded discussion of finite element modelling and a broad range of applications * Provides a complete ?all in one? reference source for a multidisciplinary, complex field * Includes many additional figures and all improved, newly drawn illustrations throughout
Preface. Introduction. Electrolytics. Dielectrics. Electrical properties of tissue. Geometrical analysis. Instrumentation and measurement. Data and models. Selected applications. History of bioimpedance and bioelectricity. Appendix. References and further reading. Index.
Applied Bioelectricity discusses biological responses to electric currents and electromagnetic fields, including medical applications and shock hazards. This work has been adapted from Electrical Stimulation and Electropathology (1992). The book covers fundamental physical and engineering principles of responses to short-term electrical exposure and emphasizes human reactions, although animal responses to electricity are considered as well. The treatment covers reactions from the just-detectable to the clearly detrimental. An important new chapter discusses standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields and electric current, and demonstrates how these standards have been developed based on the principles treated in earlier chapters.
In view of the increased consumption of energy due to the proliferation of electronic devices, this book addresses the trends, similarities, differences and advances in fuel cells of both chemical and biological composition. Fundamentals of microbial fuel cells are described, accompanied by details surrounding their uses and limitations. Chapters on electricigens, microbial group investigations and performance, Rumen Fluid microbes and state-of-the-art advances in microbial fuel cell technology are discussed. The book elaborates upon analytical techniques used for biofilm characterization. It also includes chapters on MFC models that include plant-based MFCs, Algal/Fungi MFCs, MDCs and MFCs using animal waste. A critical review on the performance of MFC technology in field trials is offered in an exclusively dedicated section. By addressing one of the most promising sources for clean and renewable energy, this book fills a pressing need to understand a possible solution for meeting the energy demands in our highly advanced technical world.
Renewable Electricity and Sustainability: Prospects in Developing Economies is the first book of its kind to be dedicated entirely to the needs of emerging economies. It provides readers with a comprehensive review of current renewable energy technologies, their status in emerging economies, and the potential for sustainable renewable electricity generation in those countries. A multidisciplinary approach is used to assess the needs and challenges of each region, which is supported by quantitative analyses of the current and future potential for renewable electricity generation. Real-world examples are also provided from the respective electricity sectors of each region. This resource is a unique reference for graduates and researchers on the social, technical and economic landscape of renewable energy in emerging economies and would also be useful to NGO’s and policymakers in developing countries or those working in sustainable development. Focuses specifically on the renewable energy and sustainability needs of developing economies Explores the renewable energy potential of developing countries and how this can be converted to sustainable electricity generation, supported by quantitative analyses and real-world case studies Addresses energy efficiency, energy management and the socioeconomic aspects of renewable electricity generation in developing countries, in addition to each renewable energy resource
Sugarcane Biorefinery, Technology and Perspectives provides the reader with a current view of the global scenario of sugarcane biorefinery, launching a new expectation on this important crop from a chemical, energy and sustainability point-of-view. The book explores the existing biorefinery platforms that can be used to convert sugarcane to new high value added products. It also addresses one of today's most controversial issues involving energy cane, in addition to the dilemma "sugar cane vs. food vs. the environment", adding even more value in a culture that is already a symbol of case study around the world. Focusing on the chemical composition of sugarcane, and the production and processes that optimize it for either agricultural or energy use, the book is designed to provide practical insights for current application and inspire the further exploration of options for balancing food and fuel demands. Presents the productive chain of sugarcane and its implications on food production and the environment Includes discussions on the evolution of the sustainable development of the sugar-energy sector Contextualizes and premises for the technological road mapping of energy-cane Provides information on new technologies in the sugar-energy sector
This book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. The book offers examples of this class of externalities that can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities related to mobility and transport; (2) external economies of scale and cluster effects, and (3) spatial environmental externalities.
Sugarcane exhibits all the major characteristics of a promising bioenergy crop including high biomass yield, C4 photosynthetic system, perennial nature, and ratooning ability. Being the largest agricultural commodity of the world with respect to total production, sugarcane biomass is abundantly available. Brazil has already become a sugarcane biofuels centered economy while Thailand, Colombia, and South Africa are also significantly exploiting this energy source. Other major cane producers include India, China, Pakistan, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, and the United States. It has been projected that sugarcane biofuels will be playing extremely important role in world’s energy matrix in recent future. This book analyzes the significance, applications, achievements, and future avenues of biofuels and bioenergy production from sugarcane, in top cane growing countries around the globe. Moreover, we also evaluate the barriers and areas of improvement for targeting efficient, sustainable, and cost-effective biofuels from sugarcane to meet the world’s energy needs and combat the climate change.
Marine Bioenergy: Trends and Developments features the latest findings of leading scientists from around the world. Addressing the key aspects of marine bioenergy, this state-of-the-art text: Offers an introduction to marine bioenergy Explores marine algae as a source of bioenergy Describes biotechnological techniques for biofuel production Explains the production of bioenergy, including bioethanol, biomethane, biomethanol, biohydrogen, and biodiesel Covers bioelectricity and marine microbial fuel cell (MFC) production from marine algae and microbes Discusses marine waste for bioenergy Considers commercialization and the global market Marine Bioenergy: Trends and Developments provides a valuable springboard for marine bioenergy research and development, making the book a must-have reference for scientists, engineers, and students.
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. The world needs renewable and clean forms of energy. Biofuels offer an alternative to fossil fuels, but first-generation biofuels had many challenges to be overcome. One strategy that second-generation biofuels are employing is microbial technology. This compendium volume gathers together recent investigations within this vital field of research. It offers: An overview of the topic Investigations into the varieties of microorganisms useful for this technology Pretreatment methodologies Genetic engineering research that will further this technology Internationally recognized experts contribute chapters on their individual areas of research within this vital field of study. The book offers an authoritative platform from which graduate students and scientists can build future investigations that will create still more advanced biofuels.
Global climate change is a natural process that currently appears to be strongly influenced by human activities, which increase atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG). Agriculture contributes about 20% of the world’s global radiation forcing from carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, and produces 50% of the methane and 70% of the nitrous oxide of the human-induced emission. Managing Agricultural Greenhouse Gases synthesizes the wealth of information generated from the GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) effort with contributors from a variety of backgrounds, and reports findings with important international applications. Frames responses to challenges associated with climate change within the geographical domain of the U.S., while providing a useful model for researchers in the many parts of the world that possess similar ecoregions Covers not only soil C dynamics but also nitrous oxide and methane flux, filling a void in the existing literature Educates scientists and technical service providers conducting greenhouse gas research, industry, and regulators in their agricultural research by addressing the issues of GHG emissions and ways to reduce these emissions Synthesizes the data from top experts in the world into clear recommendations and expectations for improvements in the agricultural management of global warming potential as an aggregate of GHG emissions