Updated throughout, the new edition of Aki and Richards's classic text systematically explains key concepts in seismology. The book provides a unified treatment of seismological methods that will be of benefit to advanced students, seismologists, and scientists and engineers working in peripheral areas of seismology.
This new edition of the classic text by Aki and Richards has at last been updated throughout to systematically explain key concepts in seismology. Now in one volume, the book provides a unified treatment of seismological methods that will be of use to advanced students, seismologists, and scientists and engineers working in all areas of seismology.
This book seeks to explore seismic phenomena in elastic media and emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning. The purpose of this title - which is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as scientists interested in quantitative seismology - is to use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to describe phenomena resulting from the propagation of waves. The book is divided into three parts: Elastic continua, Waves and rays, and Variational formulation of rays. In Part I, continuum mechanics are used to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such material. In Part II, these equations are used to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, the high-frequency approximation is used and establishes the concept of a ray. In Part III, it is shown that in elastic continua a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary travel time.
Introduction to Computational Earthquake Engineering covers solid continuum mechanics, finite element method and stochastic modeling comprehensively, with the second and third chapters explaining the numerical simulation of strong ground motion and faulting, respectively. Stochastic modeling is used for uncertain underground structures, and advanced analytical methods for linear and non-linear stochastic models are presented. The verification of these methods by comparing the simulation results with observed data is then presented, and examples of numerical simulations which apply these methods to practical problems are generously provided. Furthermore three advanced topics of computational earthquake engineering are covered, detailing examples of applying computational science technology to earthquake engineering problems. Contents:Preliminaries:Solid Continuum MechanicFinite Element MethodStochastic ModelingStrong Ground Motion:The Wave Equation for SolidsAnalysis of Strong Ground MotionSimulation of Strong Ground MotionFaulting:Elasto-Plasticity and Fracture MechanicsAnalysis of FaultingSimulation of FaultingBEM Simulation of FaultingAdvanced Topics:Integrated Earthquake SimulationUnified Visualisation of Earthquake SimulationStandardisation of Earthquake Resistant DesignMulti-Agent Simulation for Evacuation Process AnalysisAppendices:Earthquake MechanismsAnalytical MechanicsNumerical Techniques for Solving Wave EquationUnified Modeling Language Readership: Academic and industry: engineers, students; advanced undergraduates in the field of earthquake engineering. Keywords:Earthquake Engineering;Computational Mechanics;Structural Analysis;Wave Propagation;Elasto-Plastic Analysis;Fracture Analysis; Stochastic ModelingKey Features:Detailed explanation is given to modeling of uncertain ground structures; stochastic modeling which treats the uncertainty in a stochastic manner is usedSeveral key numerical algorithms and techniques are explained in solving large-scale, non-linear and dynamic problemsApplication of these methods to simulate actual strong ground motion and faulting is presented
This book explains the physics behind seismic ground motions and seismic waves to graduate and upper undergraduate students as well as to professionals. Both seismic ground motions and seismic waves are terms for “shaking” due to earthquakes, but it is common that shaking in the near-field of an earthquake source is called seismic ground motion and in the far-field is called seismic waves. Seismic ground motion is often described by the tensor formula based on the representation theorem, but in this book explicit formulation is emphasized beginning with Augustus Edward Hough Love (1863 – 1940). The book also explains in depth the equations and methods used for analysis and computation of shaking close to an earthquake source. In addition, it provides in detail information and knowledge related to teleseismic body waves, which are frequently used in the analysis of the source of an earthquake.
This third edition provides a concise yet approachable introduction to seismic theory, designed as a first course for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students. It clearly explains the fundamental concepts, emphasizing intuitive understanding over lengthy derivations, and outlines the different types of seismic waves and how they can be used to resolve Earth structure and understand earthquakes. New material and updates have been added throughout, including ambient noise methods, shear-wave splitting, back-projection, migration and velocity analysis in reflection seismology, earthquake rupture directivity, and fault weakening mechanisms. A wealth of both reworked and new examples, review questions and computer-based exercises in MATLAB®/Python give students the opportunity to apply the techniques they have learned to compute results of interest and to illustrate Earth's seismic properties. More advanced sections, which are not needed to understand the other material, are flagged so that instructors or students pressed for time can skip them.
"Physical modelling of earthquake generation processes is essential to further our understanding of seismic hazard. However, the scale-dependent nature of earthquake rupture processes is further complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the crust. Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes, and the derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. It is extremely difficult to obtain field data to define physical properties along a fault during a rupture event, at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the controversy. Instead, laboratory experiments offer a means of obtaining high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced. This important new book is written using consistent notation, providing a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles and their seismic activity"--
The present book — which is the third, significantly revised edition of the textbook originally published by Elsevier Science — emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning in the description of seismic phenomena. Herein, we use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to explain phenomena resulting from the propagation of seismic waves. The book is divided into three main sections: Elastic Continua, Waves and Rays and Variational Formulation of Rays. There is also a fourth part, which consists of appendices. In Elastic Continua, we use continuum mechanics to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such a material. In Waves and Rays, we use these equations to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, we invoke the concept of a ray. In Variational Formulation of Rays, we show that, in elastic continua, a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary traveltime. Consequently, many seismic problems in elastic continua can be conveniently formulated and solved using the calculus of variations. In the Appendices, we describe two mathematical concepts that are used in the book; namely, homogeneity of a function and Legendre's transformation. This section also contains a list of symbols. Request Inspection Copy
Seismology, as a branch of mathematical physics, is an active subject of both research and development. Its reliance on computational and technological advances continuously motivates the developments of its underlying theory. The fourth edition of Waves and Rays in Elastic Continua responds to these needs.The book is both a research reference and a textbook. Its careful and explanatory style, which includes numerous exercises with detailed solutions, makes it an excellent textbook for the senior undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as for an independent study. Used in its entirety, the book could serve as a sole textbook for a year-long course in quantitative seismology. Its parts, however, are designed to be used independently for shorter courses with different emphases. The book is not limited to quantitive seismology; it can serve as a textbook for courses in mathematical physics or applied mathematics.
Treatise on Geophysics: Seismology and Structure of the Earth, Volume 1, provides a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on the Earths structure and earthquakes. It addresses various aspects of structural seismology and its applications to other fields of Earth sciences. The book is organized into four parts. The first part principally covers theoretical developments and seismic data analysis techniques from the end of the nineteenth century until the present, with the main emphasis on the development of instrumentation and its deployment. The second part reviews the status of knowledge on the structure of the Earths shallow layers, starting with a global review of the Earth's crustal structure. The third part focuses on the Earth's deep structure, divided into its main units: the upper mantle, the transition zone and upper-mantle discontinuities, the D region at the base of the mantle, and the Earth's core. The fourth part comprises two chapters which discuss constraints on Earth structure from fields other than seismology: mineral physics and geodynamics. Self-contained volume starts with an overview of the subject then explores each topic with in depth detail Extensive reference lists and cross references with other volumes to facilitate further research Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding Content suited for both the expert and non-expert
Shows that developments in seismic interferometry - the methodology of generating new seismic responses by crosscorrelation - have taken an enormous flight since the beginning of this century. In 2006, the editors of this volume compiled a supplement to Geophysics dedicated to this new branch of science. The 22 papers of the well-received supplement (recognized by one award for best paper and two honorable mentions for best paper in Geophysics and more than 100 citations in the first 20 months) form the basis for this reprint volume. The editors have added 50 papers from SEG and other journals, including Science, Physical Review, and Geophysical Research Letters. The book contains an editors' introduction with extensive references and chapters on seismic interferometry without equations, highlights of the history of seismic interferometry from 1968 until 2003, and a more detailed overview of the rapid developments since 2004. Seismic Interferometry is an invaluable source for researchers and students interested in the theory and applications of interferometry in geophysical exploration (seismic and EM), seismology, ultrasonics, and underwater acoustics.
Many significant achievements in new ultrasound technologies to measure bone and models to elucidate the interaction and the propagation of ultrasonic waves in complex bone structures have been reported over the past ten years. Impaired bone remodeling affects not only the trabecular compartment but also the cortical one. Despite the crucial contribution of the cortical structure to the whole bone mechanical competence, cortical bone was understudied for a long time. A paradigm shift occurred around 2010, with a special focus placed on the importance of cortical bone. This has sparkled a great deal of interest in new ultrasound techniques to assess cortical bone. While our book 'Bone Quantitative Ultrasound' published in 2011 emphasized techniques to measure trabecular bone, this new book is devoted for a large part to the technologies introduced recently to measure cortical bone. These include resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, guided waves, scattering, and pulse-echo and tomography imaging techniques. Instrumentation, signal processing techniques and models used are detailed. Importantly, the data accumulated in recent years such as anisotropic stiffness, elastic engineering moduli, compression and shear wave speeds of cortical bones from various skeletal sites are presented comprehensively. A few chapters deal with the recent developments achieved in quantitative ultrasound of trabecular bone. These include (i) scattering-based approaches and their application to measure skeletal sites such as the spine and proximal femur and (ii) approaches exploiting the poro-elastic nature of bone. While bone fragility and osteoporosis are still the main motivation for developing bone QUS, this Book also includes chapters reporting ultrasound techniques developed for other applications of high interest such as 3-D imaging of the spine, assessment of implant stability and transcranial brain imaging. This book, together with the book 'Bone Quantitative Ultrasound' published in 2011 will provide a comprehensive overview of the methods and principles used in bone quantitative ultrasound and will be a benchmark for all novice or experienced researchers in the field. The book will offer recent experimental results and theoretical concepts developed so far and would be intended for researchers, graduate or undergraduate students, engineers, and clinicians who are involved in the field. The book should be considered as a complement to the first book publisher in 2011, rather than a second edition, in the sense that basic notions already presented in the first book are not repeated.