Information Operations has become a controversial subject in the US Army. Whether due to ignorance of actual employment techniques or reluctance to rely on non-tangible means, information operations are often only a “check the block” consideration for military planners. Emerging US Army doctrine emphasizes the use of information operations, stating that in some situations they can be decisive operations. This monograph examines two historical examples of modern warfare for the possible application of modern information operation (IO) principles. The information operations principles found in Student Text 3-0, Operations (destined to become Field Manual 3-0, Operations), are used as evaluation criteria to determine if modern principles were applied in past campaign plans. Significant and relevant issues from these case studies suggest there are a variety of employment methods for information operations. The purpose of this monograph is to increase the knowledge, understanding and applications of IO concepts through the examination of two case studies of modern warfare. These case studies demonstrate that IO principles have been part of modern US military art since the mid nineteenth century. In studying past conflicts a greater understanding can be gained by future military planners of the use of IO.
Examines the operations of the various systems, both individually and in combination, that make up modern naval warfare design, and discusses the evolution of naval tactics and the current practice in surface, anti-submarine, air, and mine warfare