Are contemporary societies organized by class? In recent years the apparent fragmentation of established class structures and the emergence of new social movements - in particular the women's movement and environmentalism - have altered the traditional expressions of class in society. At the same time, these changes have posed fundamental questions for the concept of class in sociology and political science. In this major reassessment, Klaus Eder offers a new perspective on the status of class in modernity. Drawing on a critique of Bourdieu, Touraine and Habermas, he outlines a cultural conception of class as the basis for understanding contemporary societies. His model reevaluates the role of the middle classes, traditionally the crux of class analysis, and links class to social theories of power and cultural capital. The result is a cultural theory of class which incorporates the changing forms of collective action and the new social movements of contemporary societies.
This book explores the new politics of class in 21st century Britain. It shows how the changing shape of the class structure since 1945 has led political parties to change, which has both reduced class voting and increased class non-voting. This argument is developed in three stages. The first is to show that there has been enormous social continuity in class divisions. The authors demonstrate this using extensive evidence on class and educational inequality, perceptions of inequality, identity and awareness, and political attitudes over more than fifty years. The second stage is to show that there has been enormous political change in response to changing class sizes. Party policies, politicians' rhetoric, and the social composition of political elites have radically altered. Parties offer similar policies, appeal less to specific classes, and are populated by people from more similar backgrounds. Simultaneously the mass media have stopped talking about the politics of class. The third stage is to show that these political changes have had three major consequences. First, as Labour and the Conservatives became more similar, class differences in party preferences disappeared. Second, new parties, most notably UKIP, have taken working class voters from the mainstream parties. Third, and most importantly, the lack of choice offered by the mainstream parties has led to a huge increase in class-based abstention from voting. Working class people have become much less likely to vote. In that sense, Britain appears to have followed the US down a path of working class political exclusion, ultimately undermining the representativeness of our democracy. They conclude with a discussion of the Brexit referendum and the role that working class alienation played in its historic outcome.
Two of the major forces that have made an impact on West European politics in recent years have been Green and New Populist parties. While they differ radically in their ideological positions, policy prescriptions and bases of support, taken together they represent the left and right versions of a protest against the general direction and form of contemporary politics. Surveying the fortunes of these two types of parties in different countries, the author develops a framework for explaining their relative success and failure. Using the specific cases of two Swedish protest parties, the Green Party and New Democracy, a systematic comparison is made of their electoral constituencies, party organization and elite behaviour to show that there are common origins, similar difficulties but divergent strategies. The case study reveals the different way in which political systems incorporate contemporary left and right forms of protest.
The last few decades has seen a prolonged debate over the nature and importance of social class as a basis for ideology, class voting and class politics. The prevailing assumption is that, in western societies, class inequalities are no longer important in determining political behaviour. In The End of Class Politics? leading scholars from the US, UK and Europe argue that the evidence on which the assumptions about the decline importance of class is based is unfounded. Instead, the bookargues that the class basis of political competition has to some degree evolved, but not declined. Furthermore, the social basis of political competition and sweeping claims about the new politics of postindustrial society need to be re-examined.
Against a broader backdrop of globalization and worldwide moves toward political democracy, The New Politics of Inequality in Latin America examines the unfolding relationships among social change, equity, and the democratic representation of the poor in Latin America. Recent Latin American governments have turned away from redistributive policies; at the same time, popular political and social organizations have been generally weakened, inequality has increased, and the gap between rich and poor has grown. Hanging in the balance is the consolidation and the quality of new or would-be democracies; this volume suggests that governments must find not just short-term programmes to alleviate poverty, but long-term means to ensure the effective integration of the poor into political life. The New Politics of Inequality in Latin America bridges the intellectual chasm between, on the one hand, studies of grassroots politics, and on the other, explorations of elite politics and formal institution-building. It will be of interest to students and scholars of contemporary Latin American politics and society and, more generally, in the vicissitudes of democracy and citizenship in the late twentieth-century global system.
This text reviews the key issues and debates over criminal justice and criminal justice policy which have concerned politicians, practitioners and the public at large. Against a background in which the subject has assumed an ever increasing profile, the authors explore the ways in which the law and order agenda has shaped and changed priorities, the emergence of conflicting law and order and justice paradigms, and the impact of the law and order reforms of the 1980s and 1990s.
In this study of the breakdown of traditional party loyalties and voting patterns, prominent comparativists and country specialists examine the changes now occurring in the political systems of advanced industrial democracies. Originally published in 1985. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
This work analyzes the impact of new political ideologies on trade unions in Sweden and Germany. Referring to modern organization theory, and by means of a quantitative content analysis, the author demonstrates the continuity and changes of standpoint of 19 individual trade unions.
One of the most important developments in American politics has been the growing prominence of the Southern states in the national political landscape. The first edition of The New Politics of the Old South broke new ground by examining Southern political trends at the end of the twentieth century. Now extensively revised and updated, the second edition looks toward the future of politics in the South and continues the unique state-by-state analysis of political behavior written by the country's leading scholars of Southern politics. Designed to be adopted for courses on Southern political culture, but accessible to any interested reader, this book traces the shifting trends of the Southern electorate and explains its growing influence on the course of national politics.