The Physics of Star Formation and Early Stellar Evolution is a collection of tutorial reviews which critically and systematically discuss the current state of knowledge concerning the entire scope of our understanding of the physics of star formation and early stellar evolution: from the origin of giant molecular clouds to the arrival of young stars on the zero age main sequence. The chapters are written at the graduate student level by an international group of twenty-one distinguished researchers, the emphasis being placed on fundamentals rather than recent results. This book provides a rigorous treatment of the basic empirical and theoretical foundations of modern star formation research. The authors have put together a unique reference book based on their own pioneering research in those fields. This book is intended for use as a primary or adjunct text for a graduate course on star formation and early stellar evolution or as a basic reference for the professional scientist interested in obtaining a background in this area of inquiry.
The origin of stars is one of the principle mysteries of nature. During the last two decades advances in technology have enabled more progress to be made in the quest to understand stellar origins than at any other time in history. The study of star formation has developed into one of the most important branches of mod ern astrophysical research. A large body of observational data and a considerable literat ure now exist concerning this topic and a 1arge community of international astronomers and physicists devote their efforts attempting to decipher the secrets of stellar birth. Yet, the young astronomerjphysicist or more advanced researcher desiring to obtain a basic background in this area of research must sift through a very diverse and sometimes bewildering literature. A literature which includes research in many discip1ines and sub discip1ines of classical astrophysics from stel lar structure to the interstellar medium and encompasses the entire range of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma rays. Often, the reward of a suc cessfu1 foray through the current literature is the realization that the results can be obsolete and outdated as soon as the ink is dry in the journal or the conference proceeding in which they are published.
The international colloquium Open Issues in Local Star Formation and Early Stellar Evolution was focused on: the physics of young stellar objects, which are observed with increasing angular resolution by the new generation of telescopes; and the processes that triggered large scale star formation in the solar neighbourhood. The scientific presentations were not limited to these two main topics as many new and interesting results related to star formation have been obtained.; The participants presented new findings in the fields of stellar groups and associations; young stellar objects; disks; outflows and jets; the ISM conditions for star formation; and early stages of star formation. The discussions on open issues, representing problems and unanswered questions, should make this book particularly useful for researchers and PhD students.
The Origin of Stars and Planetary Systems is a collection of tutorial reviews that critically and systematically discuss the current state of our knowledge of star formation and early stellar evolution, from the genesis of giant molecular clouds to the birth of young stars and their surrounding planetary systems. The chapters are written at the graduate student level by a group of twenty internationally distinguished scientists. The emphasis is on fundamentals rather than recent research results. The book thus provides a rigorous treatment of the basic empirical and theoretical foundations of modern star formation research. The book is a unique reference, based on the authors' own pioneering research. Readership: Primary or supplementary text for graduate courses on star formation. Basic reference for professional scientists needing a solid background in the area.
Studies of stellar formation in galaxies have a profound impact on our understanding of the present and the early universe. The book describes complex physical processes involved in the creation of stars and during their young lives. It illustrates how these processes reveal themselves from radio wavelengths to high energy X-rays and gamma -rays, with special reference towards high energy signatures. Several sections devoted to key analysis techniques demonstrate how modern research in this field is pursued.
The diverse forms that stars assume in the course of their lives can all be derived from the initial conditions : the mass and the original chemical composition. In this textbook Stars and Stellar Evolution the basic concepts of stellar structure and the main roads of stellar evolution are described. First, the observable parameters are presented, which are based on the radiation emerging from a stellar atmosphere. Then the basic physics is described, such as the physics of gases, radiation transport, and nuclear processes, followed by essential aspects of modelling the structure of stars. After a chapter on star formation, the various steps in the evolution of stars are presented. This leads us to brown dwarfs, to the way a star changes into the red-giant state and numerous other stages of evolution and ultimately to the stellar ashes such as white dwarfs, supernovae and neutron stars. Stellar winds, stellar rotation and convection all influence the way a star evolves. The evolution of binary stars is included by using several canonical examples in which interactive processes lead to X-ray binaries and supernovae of type Ia. Finally, the consequences of the study of stellar evolution are tied to observed mass and luminosity functions and to the overall evolution of matter in the universe. The authors aim at reaching an understanding of stars and their evolution by both graduate students and astronomers who are not themselves investigating stars. To that end, numerous graphs and sketches, among which the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is the dominant one, help trace the ways of stellar evolution. Ample references to specialised review articles as well as to relevant research papers are included.
"Stellar Physics" is a rather unique book in the growing literature on star formation and evolution. Not only does the author, a leading expert in the field, give a very thorough description of the current knowledge about stellar physics, but he handles with equal care the many problems that this field of research still faces. A bibliography with well over 650 entries makes this book an unparalleled source of references. "Stellar Evolution and Stability" is the second volume and can be read, as can the first volume, as a largely independent work. It traces in great detail the evolution of the protostar towards the main sequence and beyond this to the last stage of stellar evolution, with the corresponding vast range from white dwarfs to the mighty supernovae explosions and blackhole formation. The book concludes with special chapters on the dynamical, thermal and pulsing stability of stars.
The book begins with a historical introduction, "Star Formation: The Early History", that presents new material of interest for students and historians of science. This is followed by two long articles on "Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution of Stars and Young Clusters" and "Observations of Young Stellar Objects". These articles on the fascinating problem of star formation from interstellar matter give a thorough overview of present-day theories and observations. The articles contain material so far unpublished in the astronomical literature. The book addresses graduate students and can be used as a textbook for advanced courses in stellar astrophysics.
This volume is composed of four major in-depth yet pedagogic review chapters on the subject of star formation, written by the foremost researchers in the field. Recent infrared and millimeter radio observations are respectively reviewed by Charlie Lada and Phil Myers, both of Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The theoretical work is reviewed by Frank Shu of UC-Berkeley on the gravitational collapse of dense cores in a giant molecular cloud to form sunlike stars and Bruce Elmegreen of IBM–Watson on the gravitational instability, leading to large-scale star formation. They have written at a level most suitable for graduate students or young researchers who want to develop their research interest in the field, with the most complete literature survey to date. This volume is not an ordinary conference proceedings, but a textbook to be used in graduate study in astrophysics. The volume also includes other short and interesting contributions from Doug Lin of UC-Santa Cruz, Paul Ho of Harvard–Smithsonian, Masa Hayashi of Tokyo University, Debra Elmegreen of Vassar, Jing-Yao Hu of Beijing Observatory, Guo-Xuan Sung of Shanghai Observatory, Chi Yuan of CCNY and ASIAA, and Wen-Ping Chen of Central University, Taiwan. Contents:The Formation and Early Evolution of Stars: An Observational Perspective (C J Lada)Star Forming Molecular Clouds (P C Myers)The Birth of Sunlike Stars (F H Shu)Star Formation on a Large Scale (B G Elmegreen)Herbig Ae/Be Stars (J-Y Hu)Observations of Circumstellar Disks with Millimeterwave Molecular Line and Continuum Emissions (M Hayashi)Circumstellar Environments around Young Stars (W-P Chen)The Galactic Center (P Ho)Observations of Large Scale Star-Forming Regions and Density Wave Triggering (D M Elmegreen)Protosteller Disks and the Solar Nebula (D N C Lin)Early Evolution of Planet-Forming Disks (C Yuan)Giant Molecular Clouds and Star Formation on the Galactic Scale (G-X Song) Readership: Graduate students and research scientists in astronomy and astrophysics. keywords:
The book discusses the theoretical path to decoding the information gathered from observations of old stellar systems. It focuses on old stellar systems because these are the fossil record of galaxy formation and provide invaluable information ont he evolution of cosmic structures and the universe as a whole. The aim is to present results obtained in the past few years for theoretical developments in low mass star research and in advances in our knowledge of the evolution of old stellar systems. A particularly representative case is the recent discovery of multiple stellar populations in galactic globular clusters that represents one of the hottest topics in stellar and galactic astrophysics and is discussed in detail. Santi Cassisi has authored about 270 scientific papers, 150 of them in peer-reviewed journals, and the title Evolution of Stars and Stellar Populations.
Theideatocelebrate50yearsoftheSalpeterIMFoccurredduringtherecent IAU General Assembly in Sydney, Australia. Indeed, it was from Australia that in July 1954 Ed Salpeter submitted his famous paper "The Luminosity Function and Stellar Evolution" with the rst derivation of the empirical stellar IMF. This contribution was to become one of the most famous astrophysics papers of the last 50 years. Here, Ed Salpeter introduced the terms "original mass function" and "original luminosity function", and estimated the pro- bility for the creation of stars of given mass at a particular time, now known as the "Salpeter Initial Mass Function", or IMF. The paper was written at the Australian National University in Canberra on leave of absence from Cornell University (USA) and was published in 1955 as 7 page note in the Astroph- ical Journal Vol. 121, page 161. To celabrate the 50th anniversary of the IMF, along with Ed Salpeter’s 80th birthday, we have organized a special meeting that brought together scientists involved in the empirical determination of this fundamental quantity in a va- ety of astrophysical contexts and other scientists fascinated by the deep imp- cations of the IMF on star formation theories, on the physical conditions of the gas before and after star formation, and on galactic evolution and cosmology. The meeting took place in one of the most beautiful spots of the Tuscan countryside, far from the noise and haste of everyday life.
ROSAT Observations G. HASINGER Max-Planck-Institut flir extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching, Germany Abstract. This review describes the most recent advances in the study of the extragalactic soft X-ray background and what we can learn about its constituents. The deepest pointed observations with the ROSAT PSPC are discussed. The logN-logS relation is presented, which reaches to the faintest X-ray fluxes and to the highest AGN surface densities ever achieved. The N(>S) relation shows a 2 density in excess of 400 deg- at the faintest fluxes and a flattening below the Einstein Deep Survey limit. About 60% of the extragalactic background has been resolved in the deepest field. Detailed source spectra and first optical and radio identifications will be discussed. The results are put into perspective of the higher energy X -ray background. Key words: X-rays, background radiations, active galactic nuclei. 1. Introduction The extragalactic X-ray background (XRB), discovered about 30 years ago, has been studied extensively with many X-ray experiments, in particular with the satel lites HEAO I and II (see ego Boldt 1987) and with ROSAT (e. g. Hasinger et aI. , 1993). Figure 1 shows a compilation of some of the most recent spectral measure ments for the X-ray background. Over the energy range from 3 to about 100 keY its spectrum can be well approximated by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT ~ 40 keY, while at lower X-ray energies a steepening into a new component has been observed observed (e. g.