Prize-winning study traces the rise of the vector concept from the discovery of complex numbers through the systems of hypercomplex numbers to the final acceptance around 1910 of the modern system of vector analysis.
This second edition has been completely restructured, resulting in a compelling description of vector analysis from its first appearance as a byproduct of Hamiltons quaternions to the use of vectors in solving geometric problems. The result provides readers from different backgrounds with a complete introduction to vector analysis. The author shows why vectors are so useful and how it is possible to develop analytical skills in manipulating vector algebra. Using over 150 full-colour illustrations, the author demonstrates in worked examples how this relatively young branch of mathematics has become a powerful and central tool in describing and solving a wide range of geometric problems. These may be in the form of lines, surfaces and volumes, which may touch, collide, intersect, or create shadows upon complex surfaces. The book is divided into eleven chapters covering the history of vector analysis, linear equations, vector algebra, vector products, differentiating vector-valued functions, vector differential operators, tangent and normal vectors, straight lines, planes, intersections and rotating vectors. The new chapters are about the history, differentiating vector-valued functions, differential operators and tangent and normal vectors. The original chapters have been reworked and illustrated.
This book is a complete introduction to vector analysis, especially within the context of computer graphics. The author shows why vectors are useful and how it is possible to develop analytical skills in manipulating vector algebra. Even though vector analysis is a relatively recent development in the history of mathematics, it has become a powerful and central tool in describing and solving a wide range of geometric problems. The book is divided into eleven chapters covering the mathematical foundations of vector algebra and its application to, among others, lines, planes, intersections, rotating vectors, and vector differentiation.
Albert Einstein praised Josiah Willard Gibbs as the greatest mind in American history. As a scientist, together with James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics. As a mathematician he created Vector Calculus, which he developed in order to simplify the mathematical descriptions of the dynamics of physical quantities, like the electric and magnetic fields. His techniques are still used today in electrodynamics and fluid mechanics. This reprint of the final 1913 edition of this classic mathematical work has been scrupulously checked for perfect legibility and set with somewhat larger margins to allow the student to make notes.
First published in 1997, this title is a sequel to Dr Noel Curran's first book The Logical Universe: The Real Universe (published by Ashgate under the Avebury imprint, 1994). The philosophy of mathematics in this book is based on ideas of Sir William Rowan Hamilton on the ordinal character of numbers, the real numbers, the measure numbers, scalar numbers and the extension to vectors. The final extension is to Hamilton’s quaternions. This algebra is interpreted as the mathematics of spin. This led to a a new theory of time and space which is Euclidian. The motion of spin is absolute, no frame of reference is required. If time is assumed to have a beginning it would be asymmetric with an arrow. This concept is applied to the laws of nature, which are symmetrical. This is another Copernican Revolution in three aspects: absolute time is restored, time has an arrow - is asymmetric, and thirdly the theory is based on the motion of spin which is absolute and more fundamental than the motion of translation. This opens the way to the final unification of physics.
Calculus in 3D is an accessible, well-written textbook for an honors course in multivariable calculus for mathematically strong first- or second-year university students. The treatment given here carefully balances theoretical rigor, the development of student facility in the procedures and algorithms, and inculcating intuition into underlying geometric principles. The focus throughout is on two or three dimensions. All of the standard multivariable material is thoroughly covered, including vector calculus treated through both vector fields and differential forms. There are rich collections of problems ranging from the routine through the theoretical to deep, challenging problems suitable for in-depth projects. Linear algebra is developed as needed. Unusual features include a rigorous formulation of cross products and determinants as oriented area, an in-depth treatment of conics harking back to the classical Greek ideas, and a more extensive than usual exploration and use of parametrized curves and surfaces. Zbigniew Nitecki is Professor of Mathematics at Tufts University and a leading authority on smooth dynamical systems. He is the author of Differentiable Dynamics, MIT Press; Differential Equations, A First Course (with M. Guterman), Saunders; Differential Equations with Linear Algebra (with M. Guterman), Saunders; and Calculus Deconstructed, AMS.
Upon publication, the first edition of the CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics received overwhelming accolades for its unparalleled scope, readability, and utility. It soon took its place among the top selling books in the history of Chapman & Hall/CRC, and its popularity continues unabated. Yet also unabated has been the d
In the steam-powered mechanical age of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the work of late Georgian and early Victorian mathematicians depended on far more than the properties of number. British mathematicians came to rely on industrialized paper and pen manufacture, railways and mail, and the print industries of the book, disciplinary journal, magazine, and newspaper. Though not always physically present with one another, the characters central to this book—from George Green to William Rowan Hamilton—relied heavily on communication technologies as they developed their theories in consort with colleagues. The letters they exchanged, together with the equations, diagrams, tables, or pictures that filled their manuscripts and publications, were all tangible traces of abstract ideas that extended mathematicians into their social and material environment. Each chapter of this book explores a thing, or assembling of things, mathematicians needed to do their work—whether a textbook, museum, journal, library, diagram, notebook, or letter—all characteristic of the mid-nineteenth-century British taskscape, but also representative of great change to a discipline brought about by an industrialized world in motion.
This work is the first explicit examination of the key role that mathematics has played in the development of theoretical physics and will undoubtedly challenge the more conventional accounts of its historical development. Although mathematics has long been regarded as the "language" of physics, the connections between these independent disciplines have been far more complex and intimate than previous narratives have shown. The author convincingly demonstrates that practices, methods, and language shaped the development of the field, and are a key to understanding the mergence of the modern academic discipline. Mathematicians and physicists, as well as historians of both disciplines, will find this provocative work of great interest.