Now that the euphoria over political change has died down, the formerly socialist countries of Eastern and Central Europe are facing an economic crisis. The contributors to this well-established annual publication consider the key factors affecting the economic transition process, analyzing possible strategies for successful reform including the use of "shock theory" to accelerate the process. As well as examining various country-specific problems, the authors explore the status of the Central European countries seeking integration with the European Economic Community, and ask whether all the former socialist countries might do well to adopt some of the economic development strategies used so successfully by the nations of Southeast Asia.
This title was first published in 2003. Economists have had increasing success in arguing the merits of market-based approaches to environmental problems. By making polluting expensive, market-based approaches provide polluters with incentives to clean up, rather than mandates to stop polluting. These approaches include pollution taxes, transferable emissions permits and subsidies for pollution abatement. The purpose of this volume is to explore the situations where Command and Control (CAC) may not be all bad, and in fact might even have some advantages over market-based instruments (MBI).
In a work with significant implications for present-day economic reform in the Soviet Union, Paul Gregory examines Russian and Soviet economic history prior to the installation of the administrative command system. By drawing on basic economic statistics from 1861 to the 1930s, Gregory's revisionist account debunks a number of myths promulgated by historians in both the East and the West. He demonstrates that the Russian economy under the tsars performed much better than has previously been supposed; the Russian economy and its financial institutions were integrated into the world economy, allowing Russia to attract significant foreign capital. Furthermore, he shows that Stalin's justifications for the abandonment of the New Economic Policy in the late 1920s were incorrect: the so-called crises of NEP were either fabricated or the result of misguided economic thinking. Before Command is the culmination of the author's lifelong study of the economic history of Russia and the Soviet Union. In convincing detail it describes little-known Russian and Soviet successes with market capitalism, while it also shows the problems inherent in a mixed system, such as the NEP, which seeks to combine very strong elements of command with market resource allocation. Originally published in 1994. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
An attentive reader embarking on this book might wonder what "the" economic transition to which the title refers might be. In this century almost all countries have gone through periods of economic transition; but which period of economic history can claim to embody the notion or to represent the era of "the" transition? Definitely, no country or group of countries has experienced anything comparable to the economic upheavals that the fall of communism has brought about in a large portion of the world in just three years (1989 to 1991). No other "transition" to date has prompted more interest and more studies among economists, academics and policy-makers than has the transformation of centrally planned economies into market-based systems. It is this transformation that has come to define "the" transition. Early in the transformation process (in November 1990), with the support of the Centre for Co-operation with the Economies in Transition (CCET), I launched a conference to examine the challenges faced by these countries. About six years have gone by and a new economic landscape has emerged in that part of the world. The difficulties in transforming these economies have exceeded all expectations, and economic performances have varied considerably across countries. The time has come, therefore, to make a first evaluation of progress and problems, with a view to extracting useful policy lessons to guide policy-makers in successfully completing the transition in the near future.
International Migration: Prospects and Policies offers a comprehensive, up-to-date survey of global patterns of international migration and the policies employed to manage the flows. It shows that international migration is not rooted in poverty or rapid population growth, but in the expansion and consolidation of global markets. As nations are structurally transformed by their incorporation into global markets, people are displaced from traditional livelihoods and become international migrants. In seeking to work abroad, they do not necessarily move to the closest or richest destination, but to places already connected to their countries of origin socially, economically, and politically. When they move, migrants rely heavily on social networks created by earlier waves of immigrants, and, in recent years, professional migration brokers have become increasingly common. Developing countries generally benefit from international migration because migrant savings and remittances provide foreign earnings to finance balance of payments deficits and make productive investments. Some developing nations have gone so far as to establish programs or ministries dedicated to the export of workers. Developed nations, in contrast, focus more on the social and economic costs of immigrants and seek to reduce their numbers, regulate their characteristics, and limit their access to social services. Over time, receiving nations have gravitated toward a similar set of restrictive policies, yielding undocumented migration as a worldwide phenomenon. Globalization also creates infrastructures of transportation, communication, and social networks to put developed societies within reach. In the latter, ageing populations and segmenting markets create a persistent demand for immigrant workers. All these trends are likely to intensify in the coming years to make immigration policy a key political issue in the twenty-first century.
7200+ MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions and answers) in ECONOMICS VOLUME 4 E-Book for fun, quizzes, and examinations. It contains only questions answers on the given topic. Each questions have an answer key at the end of the page. One can use it as a study guide, knowledge test book, quizbook, trivia...etc. This pdf is useful for you if you are looking for the following: (1)ECONOMICS BOOK FOR CLASS 12 PDF (2)INTRODUCTION OF ECONOMICS (3)CLASS 10 ECONOMICS CHAPTER 4 NOTES PDF (4)CLASS 10 ECONOMICS CHAPTER 4 PDF (5)NOTES OF ECONOMICS CLASS 10 CHAPTER 4 STUDY RANKERS (6)POVERTY CHAPTER ECONOMICS CLASS 11 NOTES PDF (7)TYPES OF ECONOMICS (8)SIMPLE DEFINITION OF ECONOMICS (9)CLASS 10 ECONOMICS CHAPTER 4 QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (10)ECONOMICS BOOK FOR CLASS 11 PDF (11)IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMICS (12)CHAPTER 4 ECONOMICS CLASS 11 NOTES (13)CLASS 12 INDIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 4 NOTES (14)CLASS 11 ECONOMICS CHAPTER 4 POVERTY NOTES
What the contributors to this volume offer is neither a romantic version of the course of Polish history nor a jubilant account of the recovery of national independence and political choice. Rather, they offer a variety of tough-minded analytic perspectives on what comes when "the party's over" - not just the PSPR but the celebration marking its downfall. They focus on Poland's movement toward an internationally competitive market economy, a political democracy in which plural interests compete, and the constitution of a civil society that both tolerates and ameliorates conflict. The multidisciplinary contributors include Jan Mujzel, Keith Crane, Benjamin Slay, Kazimierz Poznanski; Jan Bossak, Wojciech Bienkowski, Wlodzimierz Wesolowski, Edmund Wnuk-Lipinski, Adam Sarapata, Andrzej Sicinski, Piotr Lukasiewicz, Krzysztof Nowak, David S. Mason, Adrzej Rychard, Krzysztof Jasiewicz, Jack Bielasiak, Janusz Reykowski, Stanislaw Gebethner, Miroslawa Marody, Edmund Mokrzycki, and Michael D. Kennedy.