In the context of wastewater treatment, Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs) have gained considerable interest in the past few years, and several BES processes are on the brink of application to this area. This book, written by a large number of world experts in the different sub-topics, describes the different aspects and processes relevant to their development. Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs) use micro-organisms to catalyze an oxidation and/or reduction reaction at an anodic and cathodic electrode respectively. Briefly, at an anode oxidation of organic and inorganic electron donors can occur. Prime examples of such electron donors are waste organics and sulfides. At the cathode, an electron acceptor such as oxygen or nitrate can be reduced. The anode and the cathode are connected through an electrical circuit. If electrical power is harvested from this circuit, the system is called a Microbial Fuel Cell; if electrical power is invested, the system is called a Microbial Electrolysis Cell. The overall framework of bio-energy and bio-fuels is discussed. A number of chapters discuss the basics – microbiology, microbial ecology, electrochemistry, technology and materials development. The book continues by highlighting the plurality of processes based on BES technology already in existence, going from wastewater based reactors to sediment based bio-batteries. The integration of BESs into existing water or process lines is discussed. Finally, an outlook is provided of how BES will fit within the emerging biorefinery area.
This book is the first in a two-volume set devoted to bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) and the opportunities that they may offer in providing a green solution to growing energy demands worldwide. In this first volume, established research professionals explain the underlying principles and processes of BESs, providing a thorough introduction to these systems before proceeding to address the roles of cathode catalysts and biocatalysts, biofilms, heterotrophic denitrification, and nanotechnology approaches. This volume forms a sound foundation for understanding the potential industrial applications of this technology, which include in particular the generation of high-value chemicals and energy using organic wastes. These applications are the focus of the second volume, where readers will find up-to-date information on microbial fuel cells and the use of microbial biofilm- and algae-based bioelectrochemical systems for bioremediation and co-generation of valuable chemicals. The book is designed for a broad audience, including undergraduates, postgraduates, energy researchers/scientists, policymakers, and anyone else interested in the latest developments in this field.
This book addresses electro-fermentation for biofuel production and generation of high-value chemicals and biofuels using organic wastes. It covers the use of microbial biofilm and algae-based bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) for bioremediation and co-generation of valuable chemicals, including their practical applications. It explains BES design, integrated approaches to enhance process efficiency, and scaling-up technology for waste remediation, bio-electrogenesis, and resource recovery from wastewater. Features: Provides information regarding bioelectrochemical systems, mediated value-added chemical synthesis, and waste remediation and resource recovery approaches. Covers the use of microbial biofilm and algae-based bioelectrochemical systems for bioremediation and co-generation of valuable chemicals. Explains waste-to-energy related concepts to treat industrial effluents along with bioenergy generation. Deals with various engineering approaches for chemicals production in eco-friendly manner. Discusses emerging electro-fermentation technology. This book is aimed at senior undergraduates and researchers in industrial biotechnology, environmental science, civil engineering, chemical engineering, bioenergy and biofuels, and wastewater treatment.
The increasing demand for energy worldwide, currently evaluated at 13 terawatts per year, has triggered a surge in research on alternative energy sources more sustainable and environmentally friendly. Bio-catalyzed electrochemical systems (BESs) are a rapidly growing biotechnology for sustainable production of bioenergy and/or value-added bioproducts using microorganisms as catalysts for bioelectrochemical reactions at the electrode surface. In the last decades, this biotechnology has been intensively studied and developed as a flexible and practical platform for multiple applications such as electricity production, wastewater treatment, pollutants remediation, desalination and production of biogas, biofuels, or other commodities. BESs could have a critical impact on societies in many spheres of activity and become one of the solutions to reform our petroleum-based economy. However, BESs research has so far been limited to lab scale with the notable exceptions of pilot scale microbial fuel cells for brewery and winery wastewater treatment coupled with electricity generation. In general, more knowledge has to be acquired to overcome the issues that are stymieing BESs development and commercialization. For example, it is critical to understand better microbial physiology including the mechanisms responsible for the transfer of electrons between the microbes and the electrodes to start optimizing the systems in a more rational manner. There are many BES processes and for each one of them there is a multitude of biological and electrochemical specifications to investigate and adjust such as the nature of the microbial platform, electrode materials, the reactor design, the substrate, the medium composition, and the operating conditions. The ultimate goal is to develop highly energy efficient BESs with a positive footprint on the environment while maintaining low cost and generating opportunities to create value. BESs are complex systems developed with elements found in multiple fields of science such as microbiology, molecular biology, bioinformatics, biochemistry, electrochemistry, material science and environmental engineering. Given the high volume of research activities going on in the field of BESs today, this e-book explores the current challenges, the more recent progresses, and the future perspectives of BESs technologies. The BESs discussed here include microbial fuel cells, microbial electrolysis cells, microbial electrosynthesis cells, microbial electroremediation cells, etc.
Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals encompasses the potential of microbial electrochemical technologies, delineating their role in developing a technology for abating environmental crisis and enabling transformation to a sustainable future. The book provides new and futuristic methods for bioelectrogenesis, multiple product synthesis, waste remediation strategies, and electromicrobiology generation which are widely essential to individuals from industry, marketing, activists, writers, etc. In addition, it provides essential knowledge transfer to researchers, students and science enthusiasts on Microbial Electrochemical Technologies, detailing the functional mechanisms employed, various operational configurations, influencing factors governing the reaction progress and integration strategies. With these key topics and features, the book generates interest among a wide range of people related to renewable energy generation and sustainable environmental research. Depicts the holistic view of the multiple applications of Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs) in a unified comprehensible manner Provides strategic integrations of MET with various bioprocesses that are essential in establishing a circular biorefinery Widens the scope of the existing technologies, giving up-to date, state-of-the-art information and knowledge on research and commercialization Contains topics that are lucid, providing interdisciplinary knowledge on the environment, molecular biology, engineering, biotechnology, microbiology and economic aspects Includes more than 75 illustrations, figures, diagrams, flow charts, and tables for further study
This book covers the principles, underlying mechanisms, thermodynamic functions, kinetics and modeling aspects of sustainable technologies, particularly from the standpoint of applying physical, chemical and biological processes for the treatment of wastewater polluted with heavy metals. Particular emphasis has been given to technologies that are based on adsorption, electro-coagulation, bio-precipitation, bio-solubilization, phytoremediation and microbial electrolysis. Metal contamination in the environment is one of the persisting global issues. The adverse health effects of heavy metals on human beings and its impact on the environment has been well-documented. Several physico-chemical and biological technologies have been successfully implemented to prevent and control the discharge of industrial heavy metal emissions. On the contrary, metal resource depletion has also accelerated dramatically during the 20th century due to rapid advances in industrial engineering and medical sciences, which requires large amount of raw materials. To meet the global metal demand, in recent years, novel research lines have started to focus on the recovery of metals from metal contaminated waste streams. In order to conflate both metal removal and recovery, new technologies have been successfully tested, both at the lab and pilot-scale. The target audience of this book primarily comprises of research experts, practicing engineers in the field of environmental/chemical technology and graduate students.
Nitrogen containing compounds produced by industrial processes are pollutants which pose a significant environmental and health hazard. There are a number of processes that have been devised for removing nitrogen compounds from wastewater. This reference book summarizes different denitrification methods for wastewater processing. The book introduces readers to toxic nitrogen compounds responsible for water pollution. This introduction is followed by chapters which explain different nitrogen removal methods including conventional methods, biological methods, food industry wastewater treatment and new approaches towards environmental pollution remediation: Bio Electrochemical Systems (BESs). This book is a handy reference guide for industrial and environmental engineers and students learning about wastewater management and industrial denitrification.
This comprehensive handbook covers all fundamentals of electrochemistry for contemporary applications. It provides a rich presentation of related topics of electrochemistry with a clear focus on energy technologies. It covers all aspects of electrochemistry starting with theoretical concepts and basic laws of thermodynamics, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and multiscale modeling. It further gathers the basic experimental methods such as potentiometry, reference electrodes, ion-sensitive electrodes, voltammetry and amperometry. The contents cover subjects related to mass transport, the electric double layer, ohmic losses and experimentation affecting electrochemical reactions. These aspects of electrochemistry are especially examined in view of specific energy technologies including batteries, polymer electrolyte and biological fuel cells, electrochemical capacitors, electrochemical hydrogen production and photoelectrochemistry. Organized in six parts, the overall complexity of electrochemistry is presented and makes this handbook an authoritative reference and definitive source for advanced students, professionals and scientists particularly interested in industrial and energy applications.
This book encompasses the most updated and recent account of research and implementation of Microbial Electrochemical Technologies (METs) from pioneers and experienced researchers in the field who have been working on the interface between electrochemistry and microbiology/biotechnology for many years. It provides a holistic view of the METs, detailing the functional mechanisms, operational configurations, influencing factors governing the reaction process and integration strategies. The book not only provides historical perspectives of the technology and its evolution over the years but also the most recent examples of up-scaling and near future commercialization, making it a must-read for researchers, students, industry practitioners and science enthusiasts. Key Features: Introduces novel technologies that can impact the future infrastructure at the water-energy nexus. Outlines methodologies development and application of microbial electrochemical technologies and details out the illustrations of microbial and electrochemical concepts. Reviews applications across a wide variety of scales, from power generation in the laboratory to approaches. Discusses techniques such as molecular biology and mathematical modeling; the future development of this promising technology; and the role of the system components for the implementation of bioelectrochemical technologies for practical utility. Explores key challenges for implementing these systems and compares them to similar renewable energy technologies, including their efficiency, scalability, system lifetimes, and reliability.
Current wastewater treatment technologies are not sustainable simply due to their high operational costs and process inefficiency. Integrated Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment is intended for professionals who are searching for an innovative method to improve the efficiencies of wastewater treatment processes by exploiting the potential of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) technology. The book is broadly divided into four sections. It begins with an overview of the "state of the art" bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as well as the fundamentals of MFC technology and its potential to enhance wastewater treatment efficiencies and reduce electricity generation cost. In section two, discusses the integration, installation, and optimization of MFC into conventional wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge process, lagoons, constructed wetlands, and membrane bioreactors. Section three outlines integrations of MFCs into other wastewater processes. The final section provides explorative studies of MFC integrated systems for large scale wastewater treatment and the challenges which are inherent in the upscaling process. Clearly describes the latest techniques for integrating MFC into traditional wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge process, lagoons, constructed wetlands, and membrane bioreactors Discusses the fundamentals of bioelectrochemical systems for degrading the contaminants from the municipal and industrial wastewater Covers methods for the optimization of integrated systems
Multifaceted Bio-sensing Technology introduces the different types of biosensors, their construction materials, configurations, production methods, and their uses in bioelectrochemical fuel cells (BEFC). It focuses on recent progress in the production of biosensing platforms/interfaces, their integration, design and fabrication, and their multifaceted applications in bioelectrochemical systems. The chapters explore the integration of genetic elements such as DNA, enzymes, and whole cells within these systems, and address environmental applications including wastewater contaminant detection, toxicity, and bioremediation. Throughout, the book shows how rapid, minuscule, and affordable biocomponents can be produced for a variety of energy and environmental applications. This book provides a practical introduction to the production of biocomponents for bioelectrochemical devices and environmental monitoring, and will be a useful reference for graduates and researchers involved in the application of bioelectrochemical systems, as well as those working more broadly in bioenergy, electrochemistry, biology, environmental engineering, and multidisciplinary research across those areas. Examines the applications of biosensors in bioelectrochemical fuel cells and other fields and their integration and assembly for future uses Explores on the application of carbon nanomaterials in biosensors Presents detailed schematics and calculations that outline integrations in bioelectrochemical systems
Around the World, metal pollution is a major problem. Conventional practices of toxic metal removal can be ineffective and/or expensive, delaying and exacerbating the crisis. Those communities dealing with contamination must be aware of the fundamentals advances of microbe-mediated metal removal practices because these methods can be easily used and require less remedial intervention. This book describes innovations and efficient applications for metal bioremediation for environments polluted by metal contaminates.