This volume is first part of the five-part set on bioenergy research. This volume covers current developments and both basic and advanced concepts in bioenergy production. Based on bioenergy road map, the book will also evaluate about the ratio existing between current challenges associated and practical implementation of these biofuels. The book complies up to-date progressive development in available bioenergy options and discusses opportunities and existing risks. The main objective of the book is to provide insights into the opportunities and required actions for the development of an economically viable bioenergy industry for practical replacement of fossil fuels. This book is of interest to teachers, researchers, scientists, capacity builders and policymakers. Also the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of environmental sciences. National and international bioenergy scientists, policy makers will also find this to be a useful read. Other four volumes of this set explore latest developments, commercial opportunities, waste to energy and integrated solution for bioenergy concerns.
Bioenergy Research: Advances and Applications brings biology and engineering together to address the challenges of future energy needs. The book consolidates the most recent research on current technologies, concepts, and commercial developments in various types of widely used biofuels and integrated biorefineries, across the disciplines of biochemistry, biotechnology, phytology, and microbiology. All the chapters in the book are derived from international scientific experts in their respective research areas. They provide you with clear and concise information on both standard and more recent bioenergy production methods, including hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. Chapters are also designed to facilitate early stage researchers, and enables you to easily grasp the concepts, methodologies and application of bioenergy technologies. Each chapter in the book describes the merits and drawbacks of each technology as well as its usefulness. The book provides information on recent approaches to graduates, post-graduates, researchers and practitioners studying and working in field of the bioenergy. It is an invaluable information resource on biomass-based biofuels for fundamental and applied research, catering to researchers in the areas of bio-hydrogen, bioethanol, bio-methane and biorefineries, and the use of microbial processes in the conversion of biomass into biofuels. Reviews all existing and promising technologies for production of advanced biofuels in addition to bioenergy policies and research funding Cutting-edge research concepts for biofuels production using biological and biochemical routes, including microbial fuel cells Includes production methods and conversion processes for all types of biofuels, including bioethanol and biohydrogen, and outlines the pros and cons of each
Advanced Biomass Gasification: New Concepts for Efficiency Increase and Product Flexibility provides a thorough overview on new concepts in biomass gasification and consolidated information on advances for process integration and combination, which could otherwise only be gained by reading a high number of journal publications. Heidenreich, Müller and Foscolo, highly respected experts in this field, start their exploration with the compact UNIQUE reactor, gasification and pyrolysis, gasification and combustion, and catalysts and membranes. The authors then examine biomass pre-treatment processes, taking into account the energy balance of the overall conversion process, and look into oxygen-steam gasification and solutions for air separation, including new options for integration of O2-membranes into the gasifier. Several polygeneration strategies are covered, including combined heat and power (CHP) production with synthetic natural gas (SNG), biofuels and hydrogen, and new cutting-edge concepts, such as plasma gasification, supercritical water gasification, and catalytic gasification, which allows for insights on the future technological outlook of the area. This book is then a valuable resource for industry and academia-based researchers, as well as graduate students in the energy and chemical sectors with interest in biomass gasification, especially in areas of power engineering, bioenergy, chemical engineering, and catalysis. Explores state-of-the-art technologies that allow for greater efficiency and flexibility in gasification, including process integration, combination, and polygeneration strategies Consolidates information that was, up until now, scattered among several sources, including journal articles Provides a valuable resource for industry and academia-based researchers, as well as graduate students in the energy and chemical sectors with interest in biomass gasification, especially in areas of power engineering, bioenergy, chemical engineering, and catalysis
In his Advanced Energy Initiative announced in January 2006, President George W. Bush committed the nation to new efforts to develop alternative sources of energy to replace imported oil and fossil fuels. Developing cost-effective and energy-efficient methods of producing renewable alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass and solar-derived biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy production methods will not suffice. The Genomics:GTL Bioenergy Research Centers will be dedicated to fundamental research on microbe and plant systems with the goal of developing knowledge that will advance biotechnology-based strategies for biofuels production. The aim is to spur substantial progress toward cost-effective production of biologically based renewable energy sources. This document describes the rationale for the establishment of the centers and their objectives in light of the U.S. Department of Energy's mission and goals. Developing energy-efficient and cost-effective methods of producing alternative fuels such as cellulosic ethanol from biomass will require transformational breakthroughs in science and technology. Incremental improvements in current bioenergy-production methods will not suffice. The focus on microbes (for cellular mechanisms) and plants (for source biomass) fundamentally exploits capabilities well known to exist in the microbial world. Thus 'proof of concept' is not required, but considerable basic research into these capabilities remains an urgent priority. Several developments have converged in recent years to suggest that systems biology research into microbes and plants promises solutions that will overcome critical roadblocks on the path to cost-effective, large-scale production of cellulosic ethanol and other renewable energy from biomass. The ability to rapidly sequence the DNA of any organism is a critical part of these new capabilities, but it is only a first step. Other advances include the growing number of high-throughput techniques for protein production and characterization; a range of new instrumentation for observing proteins and other cell constituents; the rapid growth of commercially available reagents for protein production; a new generation of high-intensity light sources that provide precision imaging on the nanoscale and allow observation of molecular interactions in ultrafast time intervals; major advances in computational capability; and the continually increasing numbers of these instruments and technologies within the national laboratory infrastructure, at universities, and in private industry. All these developments expand our ability to elucidate mechanisms present in living cells, but much more remains to be done. The Centers are designed to accomplish GTL program objectives more rapidly, more effectively, and at reduced cost by concentrating appropriate technologies and scientific expertise, from genome sequence to an integrated systems understanding of the pathways and internal structures of microbes and plants most relevant to developing bioenergy compounds. The Centers will seek to understand the principles underlying the structural and functional design of selected microbial, plant, and molecular systems. This will be accomplished by building technological pathways linking the genome-determined components in an organism with bioenergy-relevant cellular systems that can be characterized sufficiently to generate realistic options for biofuel development. In addition, especially in addressing what are believed to be nearer-term approaches to renewable energy (e.g., producing cellulosic ethanol cost-effectively and energy-efficiently), the Center research team must understand in depth the current industrial-level roadblocks and bottlenecks (see section, GTL's Vision for Biological Energy Alternatives, below). For the Centers, and indeed the entire BER effort, to be successful, Center research must be integrated with individual investigator research, and coordination of activities, from DNA sequencing to high-throughput protein development and characterization.
The Role of Bioenergy in the Bioeconomy: Resources, Technologies, Sustainability and Policy provides the reader with a complete understanding on how bioenergy technologies fit into the new bioeconomy paradigm. Sections focus on the main resources and technologies for bioenergy and its integration in energy systems and biorefining chains, analyze the available methodologies for assessing the sustainability of bioenergy, and address and the propose approaches that are demonstrated through concrete case studies. Additionally, the implications of bioenergy in the water-energy and land nexus is presented, along with new challenges and opportunities. This book’s strong focus on sustainability of bioenergy, both as a standalone, and in the larger context of a bio-based economy, makes it a useful resource for researchers, professionals and students in the bioenergy field who need tactics to assess the lifecycle and sustainability of bioenergy technologies and their integration into existing systems. Presents a complete overview of the main challenges that bioenergy will have to overcome in order to play a key role in future energy systems Explores sustainability aspects in detail, both qualitatively and by applying proposed methodologies to concrete bioenergy case studies Covers, in detail, the water-energy-land nexus implications and governance aspects
The National Meeting on Biomass R&D for Energy Applications was supportedby the Council of Biomass Energy Technology Sponsors (CBETS) and wasorganized and hosted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). TheBiomass Energy Research Association (BERA) provided technical assistance.CBETS was founded on July 14, 1983, as a forum for communication andcooperation among managers of the major biomass energy programs in theUnited States, including various federal and state government organizations, industry institutes, and associations
ACTIVE ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION NETWORK Discover the major issues, solutions, techniques, and applications of active electrical distribution networks with this edited resource Active Electrical Distribution Network: A Smart Approach delivers a comprehensive and insightful guide dedicated to addressing the major issues affecting an often-overlooked sector of the electrical industry: electrical distribution. The book discusses in detail a variety of challenges facing the smart electrical distribution network and presents a detailed framework to address these challenges with renewable energy integration. The book offers readers fulsome analyses of active distribution networks for smart grids, as well as active control approached for distributed generation, electric vehicle technology, smart metering systems, smart monitoring devices, smart management systems, and various storage systems. It provides a treatment of the analysis, modeling, and implementation of active electrical distribution systems and an exploration of the ways professionals and researchers from academia and industry attempt to meet the significant challenges facing them. From smart home energy management systems to approaches for the reconfiguration of active distribution networks with renewable energy integration, readers will also enjoy: A thorough introduction to electrical distribution networks, including conventional and smart networks An exploration of various existing issues related to the electrical distribution network An examination of the importance of harmonics mitigation in smart distribution networks, including active filters A treatment of reactive power compensation under smart distribution networks, including techniques like capacitor banks and smart devices An analysis of smart distribution network reliability assessment and enhancement Perfect for professionals, scientists, technologists, developers, designers, and researchers in smart grid technologies, security, and information technology, Active Electrical Distribution Network: A Smart Approach will also earn a place in the libraries of policy and administration professionals, as well as those involved with electric utilities, electric policy development, and regulating authorities.