The book provides an updated and detailed overview on advances in bioethanol. It looks at the historical perspectives, chemistry, sources and production of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising developments. The book also provides the details regarding the uses, advantages, problems, environmental effects and characteristics of bioethanol as a fuel. In addition, it presents information about ethanol in different parts of the world and also highlights the challenges and future of ethanol.
Bioethanol Technologies explores the conceptual and methodological approaches for understanding bioethanol technologies and future perspectives. The book comprehensively covers the global scenario of ethanol production from both food and non-food crops and other sources. This book is a useful resource for those involved with biofuels in general and bioethanol in particular, including energy engineers, researchers, consultants, analysts, policy makers, and professionals in the industry supply chain. This book: • Reviews the most significant research findings in both ethanol production and utilization; • Presents technological interventions in ethanol production, from plant biomass to food crops; • Offers a foresight analysis on the perspectives of bioethanol as a global commodity; • Presents a complete overview of the main challenges that bioenergy will have to overcome in order to play a key role in future energy systems; • Presents necessary Occupational Health and Safety (OH
This book provides an updated and detailed overview on the recent developments of bioethanol technology. It looks at the historical perspectives, chemistry, sources and production of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising developments, its uses, advantages, problems, environmental effects and characteristics. In addition, it presents information about ethanol in different parts of the world and also highlights the challenges and future of ethanol. The first edition of this book was published as a SpringerBriefs in 2013. Since then, many new developments have taken place in the last six years. This new edition will highlight the evolution in bioethanol development from first-generation production to the futuristic fourth-generation bioethanol production, the various constraints and challenges involved, and the scope for development. This book caters to the audience who are interested in alternative transportation fuels which are both biodegradable and sustainable to the environment.
Amongst concerns about climate change, energy security decline and depletion of fossil fuels, this book explores the high importance of and interests in alternative energy resources. Many studies have shown that biomass fuels are sustainable, environmentally friendly and can be the most appropriate replacement to the depleting crude oil. Additionally, they can expand green landscapes, create new job opportunities, be directly utilised in standard power systems and improve combustion performance. Biomass fuels can be limited due to production cost and competition with food. Therefore, plant and food wastes play an important role in reducing these costs and recycling dump bio-materials. Production of biofuels from non-food biomass has emerged as a sustainable option to tackle the problems associated with growing demands for energy.
Second and Third Generation of Feedstocks: The Evolution of Biofuels presents a critical analysis of both the applications and potential of bioenergy production from second and third generation feedstocks. The book illustrates different aspects of the processes used for the production of biofuels, dealing specifically with second and third generation feedstocks from biomass and algae. The pretreatment of feedstocks and optimization of various forms of bioenergy are considered, along with the economic aspects of the various processes. In the last few years, industrial research efforts have focused on low cost, large-scale processing for lignocellulosic feedstocks originating from agricultural residues and municipal wastes for bioenergy production. This book shares an insight into the recent developments taking place in this industry, exploring transformation processes as well as biomass and algae conversions. Reviews existing lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and their sources Includes processes for the conversion of various feedstocks to biofuels Discusses current research findings on second and third generation feedstocks Describes processes involved in the transformation of algal biomass into biofuels
Biomass to Energy Conversion Technologies: The Road to Commercialization examines biomass production, biomass types, properties and characterization, and energy conversion technologies with an emphasis on the production of a gaseous fuel to supplement the gas derived from the landfilling of organic wastes (landfill gas) and used in gas engines to produce electricity. The book discusses the integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept that allows the production of ethanol—along with biogas—to be used to produce heat and electricity, thus improving overall energy balance. Included case studies based on worldwide projects discuss both risks and challenges. The main studies on the combination of both bioethanol and biogas production processes are reviewed and the strength and weakness of the integrated treatment for industrial application are highlighted. The book also considers gasification technologies and their potential for biomass gasification and lists the advantages and disadvantages of using of biomass as a source of energy, the path of commercialization of the various processes, energy related environmental issues. Highlights commercialization and technological risks Discusses challenges, limitations and future prospects of third- and fourth generation biofuels Includes integration of both fermentation and anaerobic digestion in a biorefinery concept Discusses energy related environment issues (Greenhouse effect, acid rain, air pollution)
Process engineering can potentially provide the means to develop economically viable and environmentally friendly technologies for the production of fuel ethanol. Focusing on a key tool of process engineering, Process Synthesis for Fuel Ethanol Production is a comprehensive guide to the design and analysis of the most advanced technologies for fuel
The principle fuel used as a petrol substitute for road transport vehicles is bioethanol. Bioethanol fuel is mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it can also be manufactured by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam. The main sources of sugar required to produce ethanol come from fuel or energy crops. These crops are grown specifically for energy use and include corn, maize and wheat crops, waste straw, willow and popular trees, sawdust, reed canary grass, cord grasses, Jerusalem artichoke, myscanthus and sorghum plants. Ethanol or ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) is a clear colourless liquid, it is biodegradable, low in toxicity and causes little environmental pollution if spilt. Ethanol burns to produce carbon dioxide and water. Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol. By blending ethanol with gasoline we can also oxygenate the fuel mixture so it burns more completely and reduces polluting emissions. This new and important book gathers the latest research from around the globe in this promising field.
Lignocellulosic Biomass in Biotechnology highlights significant aspects of lignocellulose biotechnology, demonstrating its potential value from an application perspective. Sections cover the physico-chemical characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass, the physical and structural properties of hemicelluloses, celluloses and lignin, sources of lignocellulosic biomass , microorganisms and their lignocellulytic enzymes, enzymatic degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, regulation of cell-wall degrading enzymes, barriers to lignocellulose biodegradation, biotechnological importance of lignocellulosic biomass, lignocellulosic pretreatment techniques, bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass, lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment methods, valuable chemicals and products, techno-economic evaluation and future perspectives. This book answers questions surrounding the biotechnology of lignocelluloses. It is ideal for both students and professionals in the industry supply chain. It also provides a reference for researchers and administrators engaged in the utilization and industrial development of agricultural resources. Presents recent advances in the processing of lignocellulosic biomass Highlights significant aspects of lignocelluloses biotechnology, with an emphasis on its potential value from an application perspective Looks at the cost of enzymes and the potential of modern approaches that could be employed to reduce the cost Summarizes the new achievements that have emerged in the biotechnology of lignocelluloses in recent years Discusses a wide range of topics related to the fundamental and applied aspects of lignocellulose utilization, processing and biotechnological applications
Cellulases in the Biofuel Industry discusses how the properties of cellulases affects the quality of the biofuels produced. Heralded as the solution to humanity’s energy problem and the savior of the world’s climate, extensive research is being carried out on biofuels but there are still gaps in our understanding. This book presents cost-effective and current scenarios for cellulase production in the biofuel industry, including the most recent advancements for obtaining cellulases with higher activity on pre-treated biomass substrates by screening and sequencing new organisms, engineering cellulases with improved properties, and by identifying proteins that can stimulate cellulases. The mechanism and efficiency of the cellulase enzyme system on cellulose is discussed with the specific classification of each cellulase enzyme, as well as explanations of the limitation of cellulases in terms of their production processes, efficiency and practical applications to biofuels. Various approaches to improve the production and efficiency of the cellulase enzyme system are evaluated, along with the current limitations that are hampering cost-effective production of cellulase and guidance on how these limitations might be resolved. Includes different approaches to improve the production and efficiency of the cellulase enzyme system Discusses the current limitations hampering the cost-effective production of cellulases Provides case studies that include essential information for those looking to adapt cellulases technology
A comprehensive look at existing technologies and processes for continuous manufacturing of pharmaceuticals As rising costs outpace new drug development, the pharmaceutical industry has come under intense pressure to improve the efficiency of its manufacturing processes. Continuous process manufacturing provides a proven solution. Among its many benefits are: minimized waste, energy consumption, and raw material use; the accelerated introduction of new drugs; the use of smaller production facilities with lower building and capital costs; the ability to monitor drug quality on a continuous basis; and enhanced process reliability and flexibility. Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals prepares professionals to take advantage of that exciting new approach to improving drug manufacturing efficiency. This book covers key aspects of the continuous manufacturing of pharmaceuticals. The first part provides an overview of key chemical engineering principles and the current regulatory environment. The second covers existing technologies for manufacturing both small-molecule-based products and protein/peptide products. The following section is devoted to process analytical tools for continuously operating manufacturing environments. The final two sections treat the integration of several individual parts of processing into fully operating continuous process systems and summarize state-of-art approaches for innovative new manufacturing principles. Brings together the essential know-how for anyone working in drug manufacturing, as well as chemical, food, and pharmaceutical scientists working on continuous processing Covers chemical engineering principles, regulatory aspects, primary and secondary manufacturing, process analytical technology and quality-by-design Contains contributions from researchers in leading pharmaceutical companies, the FDA, and academic institutions Offers an extremely well-informed look at the most promising future approaches to continuous manufacturing of innovative pharmaceutical products Timely, comprehensive, and authoritative, Continuous Manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals is an important professional resource for researchers in industry and academe working in the fields of pharmaceuticals development and manufacturing.