The petroleum age began about 150 years ago. Easily available energy has s- ported major advances in agriculture, industry, transportation, and indeed many diverse activities valued by humans. Now world petroleum and natural gas s- plies have peaked and their supplies will slowly decline over the next 40–50 years until depleted. Although small amounts of petroleum and natural gas will remain underground, it will be energetically and economically impossible to extract. In the United States, coal supplies could be available for as long as 40–50 years, depending on how rapidly coal is utilized as a replacement for petroleum and natural gas. Having been comfortable with the security provided by fossil energy, especially petroleum and natural gas, we appear to be slow to recognize the energy crisis in the U. S. and world. Serious energy conservation and research on viable renewable - ergy technologies are needed. Several renewable energy technologies already exist, but sound research is needed to improve their effectiveness and economics. Most of the renewable energy technologies are in uenced by geographic location and face problems of intermittent energy supply and storage. Most renewable technologies require extensive land; a few researchers have even suggested that one-half of all land biomass could be harvested in order to supply the U. S. with 30% of its liquid fuel! Some optimistic investigations of renewable energy have failed to recognize that only 0. 1% of the solar energy is captured annually in the U. S.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS Renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, biodiesel, hybrid energy, and other relevant types, have numerous advantages compared to their conventional counterparts. This book presents the application of machine learning and deep learning techniques for renewable energy system modeling, forecasting, and optimization for efficient system design. Due to the importance of renewable energy in today’s world, this book was designed to enhance the reader’s knowledge based on current developments in the field. For instance, the extraction and selection of machine learning algorithms for renewable energy systems, forecasting of wind and solar radiation are featured in the book. Also highlighted are intelligent data, renewable energy informatics systems based on supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA); and intelligent condition monitoring of solar and wind energy systems. Moreover, an AI-based system for real-time decision-making for renewable energy systems is presented; and also demonstrated is the prediction of energy consumption in green buildings using machine learning. The chapter authors also provide both experimental and real datasets with great potential in the renewable energy sector, which apply machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms that will be helpful for economic and environmental forecasting of the renewable energy business. Audience The primary target audience includes research scholars, industry engineers, and graduate students working in renewable energy, electrical engineering, machine learning, information & communication technology.
PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS, Third Edition, surveys the range of sustainable energy sources and the tools that engineers, scientists, managers, and policy makers use to analyze energy generation, usage, and future trends. The text provides complete and up-to-date coverage of all renewable technologies, including solar and wind power, biofuels, hydroelectric, nuclear, ocean power, and geothermal energy. The economics of energy are introduced, with the SAM software package integrated so students can explore the dynamics of energy usage and prediction. Climate and environmental factors in energy use are integrated to give a complete picture of sustainable energy analysis and planning.
This book, consisting a series of papers written by experts in their respective fields of specialization, will provide a comprehensive coverage of renewable energy technologies, such as wind, wave and solar thermal energy. Other industrial terms like photovoltaic systems, biomass, distributed generations and small hydro power systems are also discussed and further elaborated upon. The Handbook of Renewable Energy Technology will be of great practical benefit to professionals, scientists and researchers in the relevant industries, and will be of interest to those of the general public wanting to know more about renewable energy technologies.
Algae Energy covers the production of algae culture and the usage of algal biomass conversion products. It also reviews modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane and biohydrogen. Each chapter opens with fundamental explanations suitable for those with a general interest in algae energy and goes on to provide in-depth scientific details for more expert readers. Algae energy is discussed within the wider context of green energy, with chapters covering topics such as: green energy facilities, algae technology, energy from algae and biodiesel from algae. Algae Energy addresses the needs of energy researchers, chemical engineers, fuel and environmental engineers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, and others interested in a practical tool for pursuing their interest in bio-energy.
The need of the hour is a global shift to alternative clean energy. This book encompasses wind energy, biofuels, solar energy, hybrid systems, energy management and efficacy, enhancement of renewable energy systems, etc. It also presents the technical and physical principles of better methods of using renewable energies. Important data and parameter sets are provided in this book for bigger possibilities of usage of renewable energies which allows an economic and environmental evaluation. Such an examination allows us to judge the boundaries and chances of the several options utilizing renewable energy sources. The aim of this book is to present useful insights into the modeling and improvement of distinct renewable systems and serve as a useful guide for students, researchers as well as people engaged in the field of renewable energy systems.
Completely revised and updated, Principles of Sustainable Energy Systems, Second Edition presents broad-based coverage of sustainable energy sources and systems. The book is designed as a text for undergraduate seniors and first-year graduate students. It focuses on renewable energy technologies, but also treats current trends such as the expanding use of natural gas from fracking and development of nuclear power. It covers the economics of sustainable energy, both from a traditional monetary as well as from an energy return on energy invested (EROI) perspective. The book provides complete and up-to-date coverage of all renewable technologies, including solar and wind power, biological processes such as anaerobic digestion and geothermal energy. The new edition also examines social issues such as food, water, population, global warming, and public policies of engineering concern. It discusses energy transition—the process by which renewable energy forms can effectively be introduced into existing energy systems to replace fossil fuels. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Extended treatment of the energy and social issues related to sustainable energy Analytic models of all energy systems in the current and future economy Thoroughly updated chapters on biomass, wind, transportation, and all types of solar power Treatment of energy return on energy invested (EROI) as a tool for understanding the sustainability of different types of resource conversion and efficiency projects Introduction of the System Advisor Model (SAM) software program, available from National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), with examples and homework problems Coverage of current issues in transition engineering providing analytic tools that can reduce the risk of unsustainable fossil resource use Updates to all chapters on renewable energy technology engineering, in particular the chapters dealing with transportation, passive design, energy storage, ocean energy, and bioconversion Written by Frank Kreith and Susan Krumdieck, this updated version of a successful textbook takes a balanced approach that looks not only at sustainable energy sources, but also provides examples of energy storage, industrial process heat, and modern transportation. The authors take an analytical systems approach to energy engineering, rather than the more general and descriptive approach usually found in textbooks on this topic.
Provides clear analysis on the development potentials and practical realization of solar, wind, wave, and geothermal renewable energy technologies Presented as a clear introduction to the topics of climate protection and renewable energy, this book demonstrates the correlations between use of energy, energy prices, and climate change. It evaluates and analyzes the current world situation (drawing on examples given from countries across the globe), whilst also giving essential and practical guidance on ‘personal’ climate protection. Each major type of renewable energy system is covered in detail and with an easy-to-read approach, making it an ideal manual for planning and realizing climate protection and renewable energy systems, while also being an informative textbook for those studying renewable energy and environment and sustainability courses. Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition starts by examining our hunger for energy—how much we need, how much we use, and how much it is costing us. It then looks at the state of climate change today and the causes. Following that, the book focuses on how we waste and save energy. The remaining chapters look at the many alternative sources of energy generation, like photovoltaics, solar thermal systems and power plants, wind power systems, hydropower plants, and geothermal power. The book also delves into current state of biomass energy and the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. It finishes with a look at the future of the subject, shining a light on some positive examples of sustainable energy. Clear overview on each state-of-the-art technology in alternative energy production Presents correlations between use of energy and energy prices, and climate change Provides guidance on what the reader can do to reduce their own energy waste Full-color figures and photographs throughout, data diagrams and simple calculations and results, and text boxes that highlight important information International examples of renewable energy in action Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and professionals studying or working on renewable energy, or environmental and sustainability alternatives. It will also benefit planners, operators, financers, and consultants in those fields.
In this ready reference, top academic researchers, industry players and government officers join forces to develop commercial concepts for the transition from current nuclear or fossil fuel-based energy to renewable energy systems within a limited time span. They take into account the latest science and technology, including an analysis of the feasibility and impact on the environment, economy and society. In so doing, they discuss such complex topics as electrical and gas grids, fossil power plants and energy storage technologies. The contributions also include robust, conceivable and breakthrough technologies that will be viable and implementable by 2020.
Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation’s energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to significant importance because they make good sense, good policy and good business. This Third Edition is extensively updated in light of these developments, while maintaining the book’s emphasis on fundamentals, complemented by analysis of applications. Renewable energy helps secure national resources, mitigates pollution and climate change, and provides cost effective services. These benefits are analysed and illustrated with case studies and worked examples. The book recognises the importance of cost effectiveness and efficiency of end-use. Each chapter begins with fundamental scientific theory, and then considers applications, environmental impact and socio-economic aspects before concluding with Quick Questions for self-revision and Set Problems. The book includes Reviews of basic theory underlying renewable energy technologies, such as electrical power, fluid dynamics, heat transfer and solid-state physics. Common symbols and cross-referencing apply throughout; essential data are tabulated in appendices. An associated eResource provides supplementary material on particular topics, plus a solutions guide to Set Problems. Renewable Energy Resources supports multi-disciplinary master degrees in science and engineering, and specialist modules in first degrees. Practising scientists and engineers who have not had a comprehensive training in renewable energy will find it a useful introductory text and a reference book.
A transition from a fossil fuel–based economy to one that uses renewable energy has become inevitable; this transition will not only be an engineering challenge, but will also be an economic and environmental one. Offering an interdisciplinary, quantitative approach, Principles of Sustainable Energy presents a comprehensive overview of the major renewable energy technologies currently available, including biomass and biofuels, solar thermal conversion, photovoltaics, and wind energy conversion. Written by renowned expert Frank Kreith, the book emphasizes economics as well as energy return on investment analyses for each technology and integrates the need for energy conservation with the overall aspects of building a sustainable energy system with renewable sources. The author covers energy storage in depth, because it is considered one of the most important, and problematic, requirements for building a sustainable renewable energy system. Treatments of the economics of nuclear power and options for transportation systems are also included. The book contains worked-out example problems illustrating engineering analyses from a systems perspective and problem sets to reinforce concepts and applications. Examples and exercises relating to solar energy systems cover latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and use current worldwide solar radiation data. But this text is not merely academic: its clearheaded look at the energy picture from the ground up, and the environmental, economic, and sustainability benefits that renewable energy systems can provide, make it a resource for government and industry as well as a text for engineering students.
This book performs a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis to examine the current food crisis and how it relates to the use of crops for energy. It analyses how energy crops may help solve humankind’s environmental changes and summarises the economic and practical changes of cultivating and utilising energy crops. Two of humanity’s greatest challenges are the need for more food production as well as growing demands for energy. Biofuel cultivation has been identified as a solution to growing energy use, and biomass power plants offer a rare renewable energy source that requires only basic technology. In this context, a dilemma arises concerning whether energy crops should be used for energy or to help remedy the food crisis. SWOT analysis allows us to organise and weigh different pros and cons against each other in terms of economics, job creation, environmental impacts, the climate change agenda, and European Union (EU) directives that promote biofuels over fossil fuels. By pursuing this approach, the book helps researchers and decision-makers cut through the many competing arguments in connection with this complex subject.