Biofuel is a renewable energy source produced from natural materials. The benefits of biofuels over traditional petroleum fuels include greater energy security, reduced environmental impact, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The most common biofuels are produced from classic food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. However, bioethanol can be produced from plentiful, domestic, cellulosic biomass resources such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal and industrial solid waste streams. There is also a growing interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel. “Biofuels: Securing the Planet’s Future Energy Needs” discusses the production of transportation fuels from biomass (such as wood, straw and even household waste) by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The book is an important text for students and researchers in energy engineering, as well as professional fuel engineers.
Explores the production of biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels, focusing on the technological issues. This textbook considers each type of biofuel in production, covering the benefits and problems with production and use and the potential for biological material to provide sufficient energy for the world's population.
In December 2007, the Congress expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS), which requires rising use of ethanol and other biofuels, from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons in 2022. To meet the RFS, the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) are developing advanced biofuels that use cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover and switchgrass. The EPA administers the RFS. This report examines, among other things: (1) the effects of increased biofuels production on U.S. agriculture, environment, and greenhouse gas emissions; (2) federal support for domestic biofuels production; and (3) key challenges in meeting the RFS. Includes recommendations. Charts and tables.
Abstract: The world is witnessing a sudden growth in production of biofuels, especially those suited for replacing oil like ethanol and biodiesel. This paper synthesizes what the environmental, economic, and policy literature predicts about the possible effects of these types of biofuels. Another motivation is to identify gaps in understanding and recommend areas for future work. The analysis finds three key conclusions. First, the current generation of biofuels, which is derived from food crops, is intensive in land, water, energy, and chemical inputs. Second, the environmental literature is dominated by a discussion of net carbon offset and net energy gain, while indicators relating to impact on human health, soil quality, biodiversity, water depletion, etc., have received much less attention. Third, there is a fast expanding economic and policy literature that analyzes the various effects of biofuels from both micro and macro perspectives, but there are several gaps. A bewildering array of policies - including energy, transportation, agricultural, trade, and environmental policies - is influencing the evolution of biofuels. But the policies and the level of subsidies do not reflect the marginal impact on welfare or the environment. In summary, all biofuels are not created equal. They exhibit considerable spatial and temporal heterogeneity in production. The impact of biofuels will also be heterogeneous, creating winners and losers. The findings of the paper suggest the importance of the role biomass plays in rural areas of developing countries. Furthermore, the use of biomass for producing fuel for cars can affect access to energy and fodder and not just access to food.
The edited volume presents the progress of first and second generation biofuel production technology in selected countries. Possibility of producing alternative fuels containing biocomponents and selected research methods of biofuels exploitation characteristics (also aviation fuels) was characterized. The book shows also some aspects of the environmental impact of the production and biofuels using, and describes perspectives of biofuel production technology development. It provides the review of biorefinery processes with a particular focus on pretreatment methods of selected primary and secondary raw materials. The discussion includes also a possibility of sustainable development of presented advanced biorefinery processes.
Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals: Circular Bioeconomy: Technologies for Biofuels and Biochemicals provides comprehensive information on strategies and approaches that facilitate the integration of technologies for the production of bio-based fuels, chemicals and other value-added products from wastes with waste biorefinery concepts and green strategies. The book also covers lifecycle assessment and techno-economic analyses of integrated biorefineries within a circular bioeconomy framework. As there has been continual research on new designs in production and consumerist approaches as we move towards sustainable development by scientists of various disciplines, law makers, environmental activists and industrialists, this book provides the latest details. Resources consumption and environment degradation necessitates a transition of our linear economy towards sustainable social and technical systems. As fossil resources are only projected to fulfill the needs of the population for the next couple of centuries, new tactics and standards must be created to ensure future success. Covers recent developments and perspectives on biofuels and chemicals production Provides the latest on the integration of technologies and processes for biofuels and chemicals production Paves a way forward roadmap to achieve Sustainable Development Goals Covers recent developments in lifecycle assessment and techno economic analysis using a waste biorefinery approach
Biofuels, Bioenergy and Food Security: Technology, Institutions and Policies explores the popular ‘Food versus Fuel’ debates, discussing the complex relationship between the biofuel and agricultural markets. From the importance of bioenergy in the context of climate change, to the potentially positive environmental consequences of growing second generation biofuels crops, this book provides important insights into the impact of policy, the technical implementation and the resulting impact of biofuels. The discussion of existing issues hindering the growth of the cellulosic biofuel industry and their remedies are particularly relevant for policy makers and others associated with the biofuel industry. Transferring information on bioenergy economy through the discussion of the current and emerging biofuel market, country specific case studies explain the existing biofuel policy and its consequences to both the energy and agricultural markets. Economic simulation models explain the future of the bioenergy markets. Biofuels, Bioenergy and Food Security: Technology, Institutions and Policies is an invaluable resource to the students, scientific community, policy makers, and investors in the bioenergy industry. Students will benefit from a variety of perspectives on major societal questions in context of the interaction between food security and bioenergy. Its review of existing literature on the biofuel marker, investment opportunities, and energy independence provides a broad overview to allow informed decision making regarding the industry. Provides an integrated overview of the world biofuel market by country, including a summary of the existing biofuel policies, role of investment opportunities, and rural development potential Discusses the impact of biofuels on efforts by developing countries to become more energy self-sufficient Examines the environmental consequences of biomass-based biofuel use.
Biofuels for a More Sustainable Future: Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment and Multi-criteria Decision Making provides a comprehensive sustainability analysis of biofuels based on life cycle thinking and develops various multi-dimensional decision-making techniques for prioritizing biofuel production technologies. Taking a transversal approach, the book combines life cycle sustainability assessment, life cycle assessment, life cycle costing analysis, social life cycle assessment, sustainability metrics, triple bottom line, operations research methods, and supply chain design for investigating the critical factors and key enablers that influence the sustainable development of biofuel industry. This book will equip researchers and policymakers in the energy sector with the scientific methodology and metrics needed to develop strategies for viable sustainability transition. It will be a key resource for students, researchers and practitioners seeking to deepen their knowledge on energy planning and current and future trends of biofuel as an alternative fuel. Provides an innovative approach to promoting sustainable development in biofuel production by linking supply chain design and decision support with the life cycle perspective Features case studies and examples that illustrate the theory and methods developed Includes material on corporate social responsibility and economic analysis of biofuels that is highly useful to policy-makers and administrators in both government and enterprise sectors
Biomass is a widely available resource, that can be characterized by its high production potential. Enabling the production of different types of biofuels, biomass can be used in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. There is extensive knowledge of the biofuel production process, and technologies enabling the production of biofuels with high caloric value and better physicochemical properties are developed. The biggest barrier in the development of a biofuels market is not the lack of know-how, but economic and political aspects. Biomass for Biofuels presents technological aspects of biomass conversion into advanced biofuels. Also discussed are the influence of growing biofuels markets on the natural environment and social relations as well as economic aspects of acquisition of biomass and its processing into biofuels. In addition biomass characteristics are presented. A definition is provided, and its chemical composition and properties detailed. The focus is on lignocellulosic biomass, whose complex structure is a limiting factor for biofuels production via biological processes. For that reason, echanical, chemical and physicochemical methods that enable an increased availability for the microorganisms used for biomass conversion to biofuels are discussed.
This open access book presents a comprehensive analysis of biofuel use strategies from an interdisciplinary perspective using sustainability science. This interdisciplinary perspective (social science-natural science) means that the strategies and policy options proposed will have significant impacts on the economy and society alike. Biofuels are expected to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, revitalizing economies in agricultural communities and alleviating poverty. However, despite these anticipated benefits, international organizations such as the FAO, OECD and UN have published reports expressing concerns that biofuel promotion may lead to deforestation, water pollution and water shortages. The impacts of biofuel use are extensive, cross-sectoral and complex, and as such, comprehensive analyses are required in order to assess the extent to which biofuels can contribute to sustainable societies. Applying interdisciplinary sustainability science concepts and methodologies, the book helps to enhance the establishment of a sustainable society as well as the development of appropriate responses to a global need for urgent action on current issues related to biofuels.
This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts, water consumption, produced allergens and toxins. Additionally, the biofuel policy discussion is expected to be continuing in the foreseeable future and the reading of the biofuels features dealt with in this book, are recommended for anyone interested in understanding this diverse and developing theme.
This book provides a timely and insightful analysis of the expansion of biofuels production and use in recent years. Drawing on interviews with key policy insiders, Ackrill and Kay show how biofuels policies have been motivated by concerns over climate change, energy security and rural development.