Existing environment and resource base for biomass producing systems; Proposed systems for production and harvest of biomass for energy; Potential impacts of large-sclae biomass production and harvest; Potential impacts of large-scale conversion; Social and economic implications of large-scale production of energy from biomass.
Biomass is set to play an increasing role in the supply of energy, both in the industrialised world and in developing countries, as concern for the state of the global environment grows. The possibility for the acceleration of commercial production has received support from the increasing involvement of the large power producers and the growing political commitments of several European countries. The 9th European Bioenergy Conference was held in Copenhagen, 24-27 June 1996. Interest in this conference series continues to grow and the event attracted around 700 delegates from 45 countries. In contrast to previous events, more emphasis was placed on demonstrating bioenergy technology in the marketplace. Overviews on recent achievements in commercial or near commercial activities formed the main focus of the event, but highlights of advances in science and technological development were also presented, in addition to papers covering environmental aspects of bioenergy. The proceedings contain 350 state-of-the-art papers addressing the following areas; primary production of biomass; provision and production of solid biomass fuels; processes for large power plants; processes for decentralised heat and power production; processes for production of transportation fuels; market, economic and environmental aspects of bioenergy and policy measures to overcome non-technical barriers
New innovations are needed for the invention of more efficient, affordable, sustainable and renewable energy systems, as well as for the mitigation of climate change and global environmental issues. In response to a fast-growing interest in the realm of renewable energy, Renewable Energy Systems: Efficiency, Innovation and Sustainability identifies a need to synthesize relevant and up-to-date information in a single volume. This book describes a systems approach to renewable energy, including technological, political, economic, social and environmental viewpoints, as well as policies and benefits. This unique and concise text, encompassing all aspects of the field in a single source, focuses on truly promising innovative and affordable renewable energy systems. Key Features: Focuses on innovations in renewable energy systems that are affordable and sustainable Collates the most relevant and up-to-date information on renewable energy systems, in a single and unique volume Discusses lifecycle assessment, cost and availability of systems Emphasizes bio-related topics Provides a systems approach to the renewable energy technologies and discusses technological, political, economic, social, and environmental viewpoints as well as policies
Sustainable Assessment Method for Energy Systems provides the reader with a new method for energy system evaluation. It is widely recognized that future energy strategies will have to deal with energy as a complex issue that incorporates environmental, economic, social, cultural, educational, and material resource attributes. Sustainable Assessment Method for Energy Systems offers a new methodology based on multi-criteria indicators for the evaluation of energy as a system.
This volume is a comprehensive guide to the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for the spatial analysis of supply and demand for energy in the global and local scale. It gathers the latest research and techniques in GIS for spatial and temporal analysis of energy systems, mapping of energy from fossil fuels, optimization of renewable energy sources, optimized deployment of existing power sources, and assessment of environmental impact of all of the above. Author Lubos Matejicek covers GIS for assessment a wide variety of energy sources, including fossil fuels, hydropower, wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, and nuclear power as well as the use of batteries and accumulators. The author also utilizes case studies to illustrate advanced techniques such as multicriteria analysis, environmental modeling for prediction of energy consumption, and the use of mobile computing and multimedia tools.
Provides clear analysis on the development potentials and practical realization of solar, wind, wave, and geothermal renewable energy technologies Presented as a clear introduction to the topics of climate protection and renewable energy, this book demonstrates the correlations between use of energy, energy prices, and climate change. It evaluates and analyzes the current world situation (drawing on examples given from countries across the globe), whilst also giving essential and practical guidance on ‘personal’ climate protection. Each major type of renewable energy system is covered in detail and with an easy-to-read approach, making it an ideal manual for planning and realizing climate protection and renewable energy systems, while also being an informative textbook for those studying renewable energy and environment and sustainability courses. Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition starts by examining our hunger for energy—how much we need, how much we use, and how much it is costing us. It then looks at the state of climate change today and the causes. Following that, the book focuses on how we waste and save energy. The remaining chapters look at the many alternative sources of energy generation, like photovoltaics, solar thermal systems and power plants, wind power systems, hydropower plants, and geothermal power. The book also delves into current state of biomass energy and the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. It finishes with a look at the future of the subject, shining a light on some positive examples of sustainable energy. Clear overview on each state-of-the-art technology in alternative energy production Presents correlations between use of energy and energy prices, and climate change Provides guidance on what the reader can do to reduce their own energy waste Full-color figures and photographs throughout, data diagrams and simple calculations and results, and text boxes that highlight important information International examples of renewable energy in action Renewable Energy and Climate Change, 2nd Edition is an excellent text for students and professionals studying or working on renewable energy, or environmental and sustainability alternatives. It will also benefit planners, operators, financers, and consultants in those fields.
The tropical zones are dominated by developing countries, which mainly face problematic environmental issues. Different than four-season countries, tropical countries have a continuous summer-like season and therefore they are rich in clean energy sources like solar and biomass. Hence, the mitigations of environment and energy issues in the tropics would require specific understanding and different approach to solutions. This book offers an assortment of studies on scenarios of environment as well as energy demand and power generation technologies in the tropics. Many of the countries within the tropics are highly populated, and this results in various problems related to the environment and energy. The demand for energy in these countries keeps increasing but concurrently there are also environmental issues that require serious attention. As the global concern on the environment is alarming today, the choice of power generation should be of the cleanest possible resource. This various reports on research activities carried out in the tropics on the aspect of environment and energy presented in this book are highly beneficial for those who like to see an improvement in the tropics with regard to environment and energy systems.
What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realization of a worldwide sustainable energy system to fulfill global development expectations by minimizing both the impact on the environment, and the international political frictions for access to limited and concentrated resources. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors is an informative read for researchers and advanced students in industrial, energy and environmental engineering. It also contains valuable information for managers and technicians working in the energy sector.
Interest in the use of biomass for non-food applications has grown strongly in recent years, mainly as a consequence of its potential as a prime renewable energy resource. Renewable energies rank highly among the options that will contribute to the prevention of climate change and to security of energy supply in the future. Furthermore, exploiting biomass is very attractive as a way of dealing with two sensitive issues facing the majority of western European countries today; the extent of unemployment and the setting aside of farm lands to limit excess agricultural production. The 8th European Conference for Energy, Environment, Agriculture and Industry, held in Vienna, October 1994 was larger that any of its predecessors, with over 300 refereed contributions from 20 countries worldwide and over 520 participants. It was arguably the most significant event to date in this field, providing the opportunity for an international exchange of information on the recent progress in developing and implementing renewable biomass based non-food technologies. Published in 3 volumes, the proceedings of this conference therefore contain the most complete overview of the present state-of-the-art. Subjects covered include: biomass resource base, electricity and heat generation, transportation fuels, chemicals from biomass, products from bio- and thermochemical conversion technologies, economics, environmental aspects and opportunities for implementation worldwide, in particular in developing countries. Apart from the numerous contributions on the most recent results in research, development and implementation, the publication also contains authoritative reviews on most of the above-mentioned areas from leading experts in each field. In addition to this, it contains a list of key issues for developing a successful strategy leading to a rapid implementation in Europe and abroad. As a result it is indispensable for anyone working in this area, whether in research, demonstration or in policy development.
The petroleum age began about 150 years ago. Easily available energy has s- ported major advances in agriculture, industry, transportation, and indeed many diverse activities valued by humans. Now world petroleum and natural gas s- plies have peaked and their supplies will slowly decline over the next 40–50 years until depleted. Although small amounts of petroleum and natural gas will remain underground, it will be energetically and economically impossible to extract. In the United States, coal supplies could be available for as long as 40–50 years, depending on how rapidly coal is utilized as a replacement for petroleum and natural gas. Having been comfortable with the security provided by fossil energy, especially petroleum and natural gas, we appear to be slow to recognize the energy crisis in the U. S. and world. Serious energy conservation and research on viable renewable - ergy technologies are needed. Several renewable energy technologies already exist, but sound research is needed to improve their effectiveness and economics. Most of the renewable energy technologies are in uenced by geographic location and face problems of intermittent energy supply and storage. Most renewable technologies require extensive land; a few researchers have even suggested that one-half of all land biomass could be harvested in order to supply the U. S. with 30% of its liquid fuel! Some optimistic investigations of renewable energy have failed to recognize that only 0. 1% of the solar energy is captured annually in the U. S.