This volume focuses on the prospects of the conversion of biomass into biofuels including ethanol, butanol, biogas, biohydrogen, biodiesel, syn-gas and other useful products. Biomass-derived fuels have gained tremendous attention worldwide. However, due to high raw material and processing costs, biofuels produced from lignocelluloses have been found to be more expensive than conventional fuels. Therefore, a concept of biorefining has been introduced, where more than one product or each and every component of biomass may be derived into useful products in a manner of petroleum refinery.
Biofuels and Biorefining: Volume One: Current Technologies for Biomass Conversion considers the conventional processes for biofuels and biomass-derived products in single and biorefinery schemes. Sections address the fundamentals of the transformation of biomass into fuels and products, including a discussion of current and future scenarios, potential raw materials that can be used, the main processing technologies and their commercial potential, and a description of the concept of biorefinery and the opportunities offered by this approach. Each chapter is supported by industry case studies covering the development of each product, fuel type, and biorefinery. This book provides an integrated approach to biofuels production and process intensification that will be useful to researchers involved in all aspects of bioenergy, particularly those interested in cost reduction, environmental impact and enhanced production. Includes all fundamental concepts related to the production of biofuels and value-added products from biomass Provides a comprehensive biorefinery scheme that addresses all biofuel types (liquid, solid and gaseous) and related bio-based products Presents state-of-the-art information on production processes Covers all required information for the modeling and economical assessment of biofuels production in single process or under a biorefinery scheme
This updated edition presents topical knowledge and technologies for the thermal, chemo- and enzymatic-catalytic conversion of biomass into chemicals, materials and fuels. International experts from academia and industry cover the complete value chain from raw materials into final products. A new focus discusses feedstock, processes and products in potential concepts of future biorefining.
Biofuels and Biorefining: Volume Two: Intensified Processes and Biorefineries considers intensification and optimization processes for biofuels and biomass-derived products in single and biorefinery schemes. Chapters cover production processes for liquid biofuels, introducing all feasible intensification alternatives for each process, process intensification methods for the production of value-added products, the importance of detailed CFD-based studies, controllability studies, strategies for risk analysis in intensified processes, the concept of biorefinery for the co-production of biofuels/biomass derived value-added products, and the importance of process intensification in the biorefinery scheme. Final chapters discuss how to ensure the sustainability of the intensified process and minimize the societal impact of biorefineries through various strategies, including supply chain optimization and lifecycle analysis. Each chapter is supported by industry case studies that address key aspects and impacts of intensification and optimization processes. Integrates basic concepts of process intensification and its application to the production of biofuels in a single resource Includes case studies related to modeling, safety, control, supply chain, lifecycle analysis, and the CFD of biofuel production processes Provides a sustainability assessment of biorefinery systems from a lifecycle perspective
Biorefineries are an essential technology in converting biomass into biofuels or other useful materials. Advances in Biorefineries provides a comprehensive overview of biorefining processing techniques and technologies, and the biofuels and other materials produced. Part one focuses on methods of optimizing the biorefining process and assessing its environmental and economic impact. It also looks at current and developing technologies for producing value-added materials. Part two goes on to explore these materials with a focus on biofuels and other value-added products. It considers the properties, limitations, and practical applications of these products and how they can be used to meet the increasing demand for renewable and sustainable fuels as an alternative to fossil fuels. Advances in Biorefineries is a vital reference for biorefinery/process engineers, industrial biochemists/chemists, biomass/waste scientists and researchers and academics in the field. A comprehensive and systematic reference on the advanced biomass recovery and conversion processes used in biorefineries Reviews developments in biorefining processes Discusses the wide range of value-added products from biorefineries, from biofuel to biolubricants and bioadhesives
The success of lignocellulosic biofuels and biochemical industries depends upon an economic and reliable supply of quality biomass. However, research and development efforts have historically focused on the utilization of agriculturally-derived, cellulosic feedstocks without consideration of their low energy density, high variations in physical and chemical characteristics and potential supply risks in terms of availability and affordability. This Research Topic will explore strategies that enable supply chain improvements in biomass quality and consistency through blending, preprocessing, diversity and landscape design for development of conversion-ready, lignocellulosic feedstocks for production of biofuels and bio-products. Biomass variability has proven a formidable challenge to the emerging biorefining industry, impeding continuous operation and reducing yields required for economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels at scale. Conventional supply systems lack the preprocessing capabilities necessary to ensure consistent biomass feedstocks with physical and chemical properties that are compatible with supply chain operations and conversion processes. Direct coupling of conventional feedstock supply systems with sophisticated conversion systems has reduced the operability of biorefining processes to less than 50%. As the bioeconomy grows, the inherent variability of biomass resources cannot be managed by passive means alone. As such, there is a need to fully recognize the magnitude of biomass variability and uncertainty, as well as the cost of failing to design feedstock supply systems that can mitigate biomass variability and uncertainty. A paradigm shift is needed, from biorefinery designs using raw, single-resource biomass, to advanced feedstock supply systems that harness diverse biomass resources to enable supply chain resilience and development of conversion-ready feedstocks. Blending and preprocessing (e.g., drying, sorting, sizing, fractionation, leaching, densification, etc.) can mitigate variable quality and performance in diverse resources when integrated with downstream conversion systems. Decoupling feedstock supply from biorefining provides an opportunity to manage supply risks and incorporate value-added upgrading to develop feedstocks with improved convertibility and/ or market fungibility. Conversion-ready feedstocks have undergone the required preprocessing to ensure compatibility with conversion and utilization prior to delivery at the biorefinery and represent lignocellulosic biomass with physical and chemical properties that are tailored to meet the requirements of industrially-relevant handling and conversion systems.
Sustainable Biorefining of Woody Biomass to Biofuels and Biochemicals explores various technologies and pathways for the valorization of woody biomass to produce sustainable biofuels and bioproducts. Focusing on commercialization, the book discusses woody biomass availability, including harvesting, transportation and storage, biomass structure, advanced biorefinery technologies, and the economic and environmental sustainability of woody biomass-based biorefineries. Various technologies are described and assessed from a commercial perspective and practical solutions to the latest challenges are provided. The last section of the book is dedicated to the commercialization aspects of biorefineries, providing details about the techno-economic viability and environmental impact of various biorefinery approaches. This book provides readers with a unique and comprehensive reference that will help students and researchers alike identify and overcome the challenges involved in woody-biomass biorefining for biofuels and biochemicals. It will also be of interest to researchers and professionals involved more broadly in bioenergy and renewable energy, and interdisciplinary teams working across biotechnology, chemistry and chemical engineering, environmental science, and plant sciences. Presents the fundamental theory and technological details behind woody biomass fractionation in biorefineries, its structure and challenges in its valorization Focuses on the commercialization aspects of biofuels from woody biomass-based biorefineries Provides an analysis of the techno-economic viability and environmental impact of various biorefinery approaches Discusses related policies and regulations
The impending threats of catastrophic climate change and peak oil are driving our society towards increased use of biomass for energy, chemical compounds and other materials - the beginnings of a biobased economy. As alternative development models for the biobased economy emerge, we need to determine potential applications, their perspectives and possible impacts as well as policies that can steer technological and market development in such a way that our objectives are met. Currently, it is still far from clear what will be the most sustainable routes to follow, which technologies should be included, and how their development will affect, and be affected by, research, public opinion and policy and market forces. This groundbreaking work, edited by a group of leading researchers originally from Wageningen Agricultural University in the Netherlands, sets out to unpick the complex systems in play. It provides an illuminating framework for how policy and market players could and should drive the development of a biobased economy that is effective, sustainable, fair and cost efficient. Starting with a state-of-the-art overview of major biobased technologies, including biorefinery and technologies for the production of biofuels, biogas, biomass feedstocks for chemistry and bioplastics, it discusses how different actor groups interact through policy and markets. Information from case studies is used to demonstrate how the potential of the biobased economy in different parts of the world, such as North America, Europe, and emerging economies like China and Brazil can be realised using research, debate, policy and commercial development. The result is an essential resource for all those working in or concerned with biobased industries, their policy or research.
Considering the deleterious impacts of fossil fuels on the environmental and natural ecosystems, it has become imperative to make a paradigm shift toward renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials. The exhaustive everyday usage of fossil fuels and processed petrochemical products are the leading causes for the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, climate changes, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, pollution of air, water, and soil as well as for the accumulation of nonbiodegradable materials in the soil and oceans. On the contrary, biofuels, biochemicals, and biomaterials derived from renewable wastes such as nonedible plant biomass (e.g., agricultural and forestry biomass), energy crops, microalgae, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and other biogenic residues seem to be carbon neutral. Therefore, the global interest in biorefining technologies, especially thermochemical and biological conversion processes, is gaining momentum in academic and industrial perspectives. Progressive Thermochemical Biorefining Technologies offers all-inclusive coverage of the most crucial topics as follows: State-of-the-art information on the production and utilization of biofuels through thermochemical biorefining technologies Conversion of waste biomass through pyrolysis, liquefaction, torrefaction, carbonization, gasification, reforming, and other clean technologies Waste-to-energy/chemical generation Fuel upgrading technologies Techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment of biorefining processes Specifically designed to be instantly applicable, this volume serves as a reference book for undergraduate and graduate students, scientific investigators, and research scholars working in the areas relating to energy and fuels.
This book aspires to be a comprehensive summary of current biofuels issues and thereby contribute to the understanding of this important topic. Readers will find themes including biofuels development efforts, their implications for the food industry, current and future biofuels crops, the successful Brazilian ethanol program, insights of the first, second, third and fourth biofuel generations, advanced biofuel production techniques, related waste treatment, emissions and environmental impacts, water consumption, produced allergens and toxins. Additionally, the biofuel policy discussion is expected to be continuing in the foreseeable future and the reading of the biofuels features dealt with in this book, are recommended for anyone interested in understanding this diverse and developing theme.
For researchers already familiar with biomass conversion technologies and for professionals in other fields, such as agriculture, food, and chemical industries, here is a comprehensive review of the emerging biorefinery industry. The book's content has been conveniently organized according to technologies (biomass feedstock and pretreatment, hydrolytic enzymes in biorefinery, and biofuels), with each chapter highlighting an important biobased industrial product. For undergraduate and graduate students, the book is a thorough introduction to biorefinery technologies.
Integrated Biorefineries: Design, Analysis, and Optimization examines how to create a competitive edge in biorefinery innovation through integration into existing processes and infrastructure. Leading experts from around the world working in design, synthesis, and optimization of integrated biorefineries present the various aspects of this complex process, capturing the state of the art in the advancing bioeconomy. The book defines an integrated biorefinery as a processing facility that transforms biomass into value-added products—from biofuels and biochemicals to food and pharmaceuticals. The chapters cover biorefinery product and process design, supply chains, process analysis, feedstocks, technologies, and policy and environmental analysis. They focus on second-generation feedstocks, including forestry resources, energy crops, agricultural residues, oils, and various waste materials. With the growing interest in sustainability in general and in renewable resources in industrial facilities, biorefineries are likely to play increasingly significant roles and have greater economic, environmental, and societal impact. This book fills an information gap by presenting cutting-edge advances that can effectively guide engineers and decision makers in the synthesis, selection, design, analysis, and optimization of biorefineries.