An authoritative and up-to-date survey of the fundamental principles, and practice of drug delivery at the cellular level. On the principles side, the authors discuss the broad spectrum of cellular delivery, ranging from coverage of cell-mediated immunity, gene delivery, and protein targeting, to cellular drug transport, cellular drug permeability, and a variety of carrier system related to targeted drug delivery. On the practice side, the authors focus on technological developments in cellular drug delivery, including novel formulations for the delivery of DNA and antisense oligonucleotides ,as well as drug targeting with immunoglobulin formulations and antibody-mediated approaches.
This book features a special subsection of Nanomedicine, an application of nanotechnology to achieve breakthroughs in healthcare. It exploits the improved and often novel physical, chemical and biological properties of materials only existent at the nanometer scale. As a consequence of small scale, nanosystems in most cases are efficiently uptaken by cells and appear to act at the intracellular level. Nanotechnology has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of diseases, and includes targeted drug delivery and regenerative medicine; it creates new tools and methods that impact significantly upon existing conservative practices. This volume is a collection of authoritative reviews. In the introductory section we define the field (intracellular delivery). Then, the fundamental routes of nanodelivery devices, cellular uptake, types of delivery devices, particularly in terms of localized cellular delivery, both for small drug molecules, macromolecular drugs and genes; at the academic and applied levels, are covered. The following section is dedicated to enhancing delivery via special targeting motifs followed by the introduction of different types of intracellular nanodelivery devices (e.g. a brief description of their chemistry) and ways of producing these different devices. Finally, we put special emphasis on particular disease states and on other biomedical applications, whilst diagnostic and sensing issues are also included. Intracellular delivery / therapy is a highly topical which will stir great interest. Intracellular delivery enables much more efficient drug delivery since the impact (on different organelles and sites) is intracellular as the drug is not supplied externally within the blood stream. There is great potential for targeted delivery with improved localized delivery and efficacy.
This is a review of the structure and function of biological membranes and other cellular barriers used in drug transport. It discusses a range of concepts for drug delivery systems, treating the routes of drugs with regard to their characteristics: function, structure, uptake, mechanism and effect. The book also explores the interface between pharmaceutical technology and physiological principles in drug design, a field of increased importance to industry.
Drug Targeting and Stimuli Sensitive Drug Delivery Systems covers recent advances in the area of stimuli sensitive drug delivery systems, providing an up-to-date overview of the physical, chemical, biological and multistimuli-responsive nanosystems. In addition, the book presents an analysis of clinical status for different types of nanoplatforms. Written by an internationally diverse group of researchers, it is an important reference resource for both biomaterials scientists and those working in the pharmaceutical industry who are looking to help create more effective drug delivery systems. Shows how the use of nanomaterials can help target a drug to specific tissues and cells Explores the development of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems Includes case studies to showcase how stimuli responsive nanosystems are used in a variety of therapies, including camptothecin delivery, diabetes and cancer therapy
Nanomaterials have many intriguing applications in biology and medicine. Unique properties such as enhanced electrical properties, increased chemical reactivity and resistance to degradation, novel optical properties and comparable size to that of biological systems have led to their use in various biomedical applications. The most important applications of nanomaterials for medicine are in drug delivery and imaging. This research focuses on utilizing the biocompatibility of single walled Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and optical properties colloidal quantum dots (QDs) for cellular drug delivery and imaging of biomolecules. The first part of this research deals with single walled carbon nanotubes which are excellent candidates for targeted drug delivery applications due their unique structural and functional properties. However, prior to their use in therapeutics, their biocompatibility needs to be thoroughly investigated. The objectives of this research were to establish the biocompatibility of SWCNTs and demonstrate their use as drug delivery carriers into cells. Blood, a living tissue, is chosen as the biological system as it contains various cells which can potentially interact with SWCNTs during the delivery mechanism. The interactions of these cells in the blood (specifically white blood cells or leukocytes) with the SWCNTs provide vital information regarding the immune response of the host to the nanotubes. This research investigates the immune response of white blood cells due to SWCNTs via (a) direct interaction - presence of nanotubes in the blood and, (b) indirect interaction - presentation of nanotubes by antigen-presenting-cells to white blood cells. These two interactions recreate the innate and adaptive immune responses occurring in the body to any foreign substance. SWCNTs are functionalized with single stranded DNA (ss-DNA), which serves as a dispersant of nanotubes as well as a backbone for further attachment of other biomolecules of interest. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometric studies are performed to characterize the interactions. Results from this acute immune response study demonstrate the biocompatibility of SWCNTs in whole blood and also confirm the cellular delivery of single stranded DNA. The second part of the research is on colloidal quantum dots (QDs): nanometer sized semiconductor crystals typically between 1 run to 20 nm in diameter. In addition to being size comparable with many biological systems, and having large surface area for multiple biomolecules attachment, they possess high resistance to chemical and photo degradation, tunable emission based on size and composition which makes them excellent candidates for cellular delivery and imaging. The main objectives of this research was to demonstrate the use of QDs for cellular imaging as well as targeted biomolecule delivery by conjugating the QDs with an antibody to a functional protein and delivery into live cells. Conventional techniques deliver QDs as aggregates, however, a major challenge in the use of QDs for cellular imaging and biomolecule delivery is achieving freely dispersed QDs inside the cells. In this research, a new technique to deliver monodispersed QDs inside live cells was developed. The approach combines osmosis driven fluid transport into cells achieved by creating hypotonic environment and reversible permeabilization using low concentrations of cell permeabilization agents like Saponin. The results confirm that highly efficient endocytosis-free intracellular delivery of QDs can be accomplished using this method. Confocal microscopy is used to image the QDs inside the cells and flow cytometry is used for quantifying the fluorescence. To demonstrate targeted delivery, QDs are conjugated to the antibody of a protein: the nuclear transcriptional factor, NFkB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells) using EDC/sulfo NHS chemistry methods. NFkB is a family of proteins with 5 different subunits and is involved in a variety of biological processes such as immune and inflammatory responses and cellular developmental processes. In unstimulated cells, NFkB is inactive in cytoplasm and translocates to the nucleus upon stimulation using bacterial products, viruses, radiation, and the like. QDs fluorescence could be used to monitor NFKB activity over extended periods of time in live cells.
This important new book provides the fundamental understanding of the peptide and protein drug delivery systems with a special focus on their nanotechnology applications. Addressing an increasing interest in peptide and protein drug delivery systems in both academic and industrial circles worldwide, this book fills the need for a comprehensive review and assessment of conventional and nonconventional routes of administration.
Frank discussions of opportunities and challenges point the way to new, more effective drug delivery systems Interest in nanomedicine has grown tremendously, fueled by the expectation that continued research will lead to the safe, efficient, and cost-effective delivery of drugs or imaging agents to human tissues and organs. The field, however, has faced several challenges attempting to translate novel ideas into clinical benefits. With contributions from an international team of leading nanomedicine researchers, this book provides a practical assessment of the possibilities and the challenges of modern nanomedicine that will enable the development of clinically effective nanoparticulate drug delivery products and systems. Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems focuses on the rationales and preclinical evaluation of new nanoparticulate drug carriers that have yet to be thoroughly reviewed in the literature. The first chapter sets the stage with a general overview of targeted nanomedicine. The book then explores new and promising nanoparticulate drug delivery systems, including: Lipid nanoparticles for the delivery of nucleic acids Multifunctional dendritic nanocarriers Polymer drug nanoconjugates Next, the book presents new opportunities and challenges for nanoparticulate drug delivery systems, including: Clearance of nanoparticles during circulation Drug delivery strategies for combatting multiple drug resistance Toxicological assessment of nanomedicine Chapters offer state-of-the-technology reviews with extensive references to facilitate further investigation. Moreover, each chapter concludes with an expert assessment of remaining challenges, pointing the way to solutions and new avenues of research. With its frank discussions of opportunities and challenges, Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems sets a solid foundation for new research leading to the discovery and development of better nanomedicines.