Unjustified enrichment has been one of the most intellectually vital areas of private law. There is, however, still no unanimity among civil-law and common-law legal systems about how to structure this important branch of the law of obligations. Several key issues are considered comparatively in this 2002 book, including grounds for recovery of enrichment, defences, third-party enrichment, as well as proprietary and taxonomic questions. Two contributors deal with each topic, one a representative of a common-law system, the other a representative of a civil-law or mixed system. This approach illuminates not just similarities or differences between systems, but also what different systems can learn from one another. In an area of law whose territory is still partially uncharted and whose borders are contested, such comparative perspectives will be valuable for both academic analysis of the law and its development by the courts.
This new edition of Unjust Enrichment by the editor of the Clarendon Law Series, is a fully updated, clear and concise account of the law of unjust enrichment. It attempts to move away from the use of obscure terminology inherited from the past. This text is the first book to insist on the switch from restitution to unjust enrichment, from response to event. It organises modern law around five simple questions: Was the defendant enriched? If so, was it at the claimant's expense? If so, was it unjust? The fourth question is then what kind of right the claimant has, and the fifth is whether the defendant has any defences. This second edition was revised and updated by Peter Birks before his death from cancer on 6 July 2004 at the age of 62. It represents the final thinking of the world's leading authority on the subject.
This book is the second in a series of essay collections on defences in private law. It addresses defences to liability arising in unjust enrichment. The essays are written from a range of perspectives and methodologies. Some are doctrinal, others are theoretical, and several offer comparative insights. The most important defence in this area of the law, change of position, is addressed in detail, but many other defences are treated too, as well as the interrelations between these defences within the law of unjust enrichment. The essays offer novel claims and ways of looking at problems in this challenging area of legal study.
Now available in paperback! This book is the second in a series of essay collections on defences in private law. It addresses defences to liability arising in unjust enrichment. The essays are written from a range of perspectives and methodologies. Some are doctrinal, others are theoretical, and several offer comparative insights. The most important defence in this area of the law, change of position, is addressed in detail, but many other defences are treated too, as well as the interrelations between these defences within the law of unjust enrichment. The essays offer novel claims and ways of looking at problems in this challenging area of legal study. (Series: Hart Studies in Private Law: Essays on Defences, Vol. 2) [Subject: Contract Law, Tort Law]
This book contrasts two competing models of unjust enrichment liability: the common law model and the civil law model. The former bases restitution on concrete, pragmatic 'unjust factors', rendering an enrichment unjust in the eyes of the law, while the latter operates with the negative requirement that restitution will follow if an enrichment is not supported by a 'legal ground' or 'juristic reason'. The common law of unjust enrichment is a very young subject, while its civil law counterpart is based on two millennia of development. Should English law therefore accept that the civil law model is superior and adopt an anglicised version of 'legal ground' reasoning? This is indeed suggested by German commentators, and the English case law seems to be moving English enrichment law in that direction. This book considers such arguments by examining the reasons for restitution in English and German law.
The publication of the Restatement Third: Unjust Enrichment and Restitution by the American Law Institute in July 2010 was an event of major importance, not only for the development of the law of unjust enrichment in the US, but also for global scholarship relating to this area of private law. The Restatement First appeared in 1937, and the Restatement Second was abandoned; hence the Restatement Third is the most significant survey of the American law on this topic for over 70 years. Private law has been a comparatively neglected area of study in US law schools for several decades, and this is particularly true of the law of unjust enrichment. However, the appearance of the Restatement Third has prompted a renewal of interest in the subject among US scholars, and it is hoped that the present volume of essays will contribute to this revival, while reflecting on the lessons to be learned from the Restatement by other legal systems. Featuring the work of leading scholars from the UK, Germany, South Africa, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia, the essays undertake critical and comparative analysis of the Restatement, and offer fresh insights into the rules that it articulates.
This Consultation Paper gives provisional recommendations on whether a claimant who has been involved in illegal conduct should be entitled to enforce a claim in contract, unjust enrichment, trusts and tort. It follows earlier consultation papers on illegality in contacts and trusts (LCCP 154, 1999, 9780117302396) and the illegality defence in tort (LCCP 160, 2001, ISBN 9780117302457). How should the law respond if a claimant has been involved in some form of illegal conduct? Should this prevent the claimant winning his or her claim? It is difficult to set out hard and fast rules as the illegality defence may be used against claimants in such a wide variety of contexts. The courts have attempted to lay down a series of rules to apply in different circumstances. The result is a body of law which is uncertain and sometimes arbitrary, occasionally producing results which may appear unduly harsh or not harsh enough. The Commission believes that, in most areas of the law, it is up to the courts to develop clear, fair law, based on a set of policy rationales. Judges should base their decisions directly on the policies that underlie the illegality defence and explain their reasoning accordingly. The Commission makes proposals on what those policies should be. There is one area in which the Commission does not think that judicial clarification is possible: where a trust has been set up to hide true ownership for criminal purposes. The Commission feels that statutory reform is needed here, and is in the process of preparing a draft Bill which will be presented with the final report later this year.
This book is the first book focusing on the Chinese law of unjust enrichment in English and introducing it to Western jurisdictions. Unjust enrichment is currently one of the most controversial areas of law in many jurisdictions and rife with academic debate. This book analyzes the historical evolution, current doctrines, and relationships of unjust enrichment with other areas of private law in China . It also provides insights into judicial practice. In May 2020, China promulgated its first-ever Civil Code since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, which is a milestone in the history of Chinese law. Before the Civil Code, there was only one legal provision regulating unjust enrichment, which requires a person obtaining benefits "without a legal basis" to return such benefits. However, the new Civil Code contains a separate chapter regulating unjust enrichment. This book analyzes and evaluates those new provisions in the Civil Code to provide a most up-to-date analysis of the Chinese law of unjust enrichment. .
The Law of Restitution in Nigeria covers the historical development of restitution in law, its scope, and contemporary issues related to it. Some of the issues covered are: Ignorance; Incapacity; Exploitation; Enrichment at the plaintiffs expense; Restitution for wrongs and general principles, torts, breach of contract, equitable wrongdoing, criminal offenses; Defenses relating to changing circumstances; Illegality; and limitation of actions in restitution.
Enrichment is key to understanding the law of unjust enrichment and restitution. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the concept of enrichment and its implications for restitutionary awards. Dr Lodder argues that enrichment may be characterised either factually or legally, and explores the consequences of that distinction. In factual enrichment cases, the measure of enrichment is the objective value received. This is the basis of many awards of money had and received, quantum meruit, quantum valebat and money paid. In legal enrichment cases, the benefit is the acquisition of a specific right or the release of a specific obligation. The remedy is restitution of that right or reinstatement of that obligation. It is demonstrated that specific restitution of the defendant's legal enrichment is often the basis for resulting trusts, rescission, rectification and subrogation. This book has profound implications for understanding restitutionary awards and the relationship between the enrichment inquiry and other aspects of the law of unjust enrichment, including the 'at the expense of' inquiry and the defence of change of position.