This book is devoted to the interaction between elemental metals and (in)organic ligands in different reaction conditions. Metals could be activated for further reactions as cryosynthesis, electrosynthesis and tribosynthesis, some of them with or without ultrasonic and microwave treatment. The kinetics of metal dissolution in various non-aqueous media is discussed in detail. Many methods are used nowadays to synthesize coordination compounds. Metal complexes are obtained mainly by the direct interaction of the components (the ligands and a source of the complex-forming metal), as a result of ligand and metal exchange, and under the conditions of template synthesis, which also include the method of nascent reagents. In these methods the source of the metal is either its salts or carbonyls. At the same time, it has long been known that coordination compounds may be obtained as a result of direct synthesis from zero-valent metals. Methods for the synthesis of complex compounds under the conditions of gas-phase reactions, oxidative dissolution of zero-valent metals in non-aqueous media, and in the solid phase have been developed. These methods have become the basis of a new field in synthetic chemistry - the direct synthesis of coordination and organometallic compounds from zero-valent metals. Particular aspects of the above problem have been described in a series of reviews and monographs. However, on the whole these main parts of the direct synthesis of metal complexes has not been dealt with in the review and monograph publications on coordination chemistry. So, the main objective of this book is to analyze, discuss and generalize the existing information in the area of direct reactions leading to the coordination and organometallic reactions. Some methods of direct synthesis have been developed in the former USSR (in particular, a lot of works on cryosynthesis, pioneered (1972-1973) and recent works on electrosynthesis) but, in spite of their novelty and/or wide applicability, they are practically unknown elsewhere due to the language barrier. Thus, another objective of this book is to acquaint the readers with the mentioned achievements. Every chapter contains the tables which describe all the reported data on direct reaction between metal atoms, metal particles or bulk metals with (in)organic ligans. There are some illustrations also (for example, the scheme of the reactor for gas-phase reaction between metal small particles and &bgr;-diketones).
Direct Synthesis of Metal Complexes provides in-depth coverage of the direct synthesis of coordination and organometallic compounds. The work is primarily organized by methods, but also covers highly relevant complexes, such as metal-polymer coordination compounds. This updated reference discusses recent developments in cryosynthesis, electrosynthesis, and tribosynthesis (popular as it doesn’t require organic solvents), with special attention paid to ‘greener’ methodologies and approaches. Additionally, the book describes physical methods of zero-valent metal interaction with organic matter, including sputtering, ultrasonic treatment and synthesis in ionic liquids. The book presents completely new content as a follow-up to the 1999 Elsevier Science publication Direct Synthesis of Coordination and Organometallic Compounds that was edited by Dr. Garnovskii and Dr. Kharisov. Covers current methods and techniques of metal interactions with organic media leading to metal chelates, adducts, di- and polymetallic complexes, metal-containing macrocycles, supported coordination compounds (i.e., metal complexes on carbon nanotubes), and more Describes reactivities of distinct forms of elemental metals (powders, sheets, nanoparticles (including a host of less-common metal nanostructures) with organic phase (liquid, solid and gaseous) and water Includes experimental procedures, with examples of direct synthesis, at the end of each chapter
Advances in Pesticide Science, Part 2: Synthesis of Pesticides, Chemical Structure and Biological Activity, Natural Products with Biological Activity is a collection of papers presented at the Fourth International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, held in Zurich, Switzerland on July 24-28, 1978. This book is composed of forty eight chapters, and begins with the synthesis of pesticides. The succeeding chapters deal with heterocyclic synthesis by rearrangement, synthesis and transformations of nitrogen and sulphurcontaining bicyclic heterocyclic systems. These topics are followed by discussions on synthesis of bmc-analogous n-heterocycles from 1,2-, 1,3-, 1,4-, and 1,5- diamines. Other chapters describe the synthesis and herbicidal activity of 4-acylpyrazole derivatives, the synthesis and properties of plant growth regulators, the carboxyphenyl derivatives of five and six membered heterocycles and potential phosphorus-containing intermediates for the synthesis of pesticides. The final chapters consider the influence of antagonistic fungi on the spore-formation of rust fungi. This book will prove useful to agriculturists and organic chemists.
This reference describes standard and nonstandard coordination modes of ligands in complexes, the intricacies of polyhedron-programmed and regioselective synthesis, and the controlled creation of coordination compounds such as molecular and hn-p-complexes, chelates, and homo- and hetero-nuclear compounds. It offers a clear and concise review of modern synthetic techniques of metal complexes as well as lesser known gas- and solid-phase synthesis, electrosynthesis, and microwave and ultrasonic treatment of the reaction system. The authors pay special attention to o-hydroxyazomethines and their S-, Se-containing analogues, b-diketones, and quinines, among others, and examine the immediate interaction of ligands and metal salts or carbonyls.
This is the very first book that offers an up-to-date and comprehensive overview on deuteride. It not only includes the concept, existing forms, key characteristics, but also reviews the preparation and characterization technologies and the latest research developments of deuteride. The special properties such as the nuclear properties, isotropic and neutron effect, poisonousness, radioactivity, volume expansion are systematically discussed to build up the sound understanding of the materials. In particular, this work reviews a number of commercial and scientific uses of the materials including nuclear reactors, NMR spectroscopy and medicines. Researchers and industrial professionals in medicine, chemistry, biochemistry, environmental sciences and defense sciences will benefit from this work.
N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have found robust development and were widely used as ubiquitous ligands for organometallic complexes in the past two decades. Besides the most popular Arduengo carbenes, i.e. imidazol-2-ylidene and its analogues, novel carbenes derived from N-heterocycles other than imidazole have lately attracted increasing attention. In this work, metal complexes with novel N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, such as imidazol-4/5-ylidene, pyridazin-4-ylidene, and N-metallated N-heterocyclic carbene have been synthesized and characterized. In addition, inspired by a recent discovery that a carbon atom was chelated by NHC ligands to form carbodicarbene, efforts to synthesize a novel indene-derived carbene, in which NHC ligands coordinate to carbon atoms adjacent to the carbenic carbon atom, have been carried out.
The series Topics in Organometallic Chemistry presents critical overviews of research results in organometallic chemistry. As our understanding of organometallic structure, properties and mechanisms increases, new ways are opened for the design of organometallic compounds and reactions tailored to the needs of such diverse areas as organic synthesis, medical research, biology and materials science. Thus the scope of coverage includes a broad range of topics in pure and applied organometallic chemistry, where new breakthroughs are being achieved that are of significance to a larger scientific audience. The individual volumes of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry are thematic. Review articles are generally invited by the volume editors.
Ultrasonic irradiation and the associated sonochemical and sonophysical effects are complementary techniques for driving more efficient chemical reactions and yields. Sonochemistry—the chemical effects and applications of ultrasonic waves—and sustainable (green) chemistry both aim to use less hazardous chemicals and solvents, reduce energy consumption, and increase product selectivity. A comprehensive collection of knowledge, Handbook on Applications of Ultrasound covers the most relevant aspects linked to and linking green chemistry practices to environmental sustainability through the uses and applications of ultrasound-mediated and ultrasound-assisted biological, biochemical, chemical, and physical processes. Chapters are presented in the areas of: Medical applications Drug and gene delivery Nanotechnology Food technology Synthetic applications and organic chemistry Anaerobic digestion Environmental contaminants degradation Polymer chemistry Industrial syntheses and processes Reactor design Electrochemical systems Combined ultrasound−microwave technologies While the concepts of sonochemistry have been known for more than 80 years, in-depth understanding of this phenomenon continues to evolve. Through a review of the current status of chemical and physical science and engineering in developing more environmentally friendly and less toxic synthetic processes, this book highlights many existing applications and the enormous potential of ultrasound technology to upgrade present industrial, agricultural, and environmental processes.
Since the publication of our earlier book on transition metal mediated organic synthesis, * there has been a widespread increase of interest in this topic, and transition metal based methodology has become firmly established in many areas of organic chemistry. The direct, catalytic formation of organic carbonyl compounds using carbon monoxide as the source of the carbonyl group has seen exceptional progress, and this carbonylation chemistry is being used increasingly in research and on a larger scale for fine chemicals production. In view of these developments, there is a need for a modem, practi cally oriented book dealing with transition metal based carbonylation chemistry. The present monograph should help fulfill this need, since it is intended specifically to foster the adoption of catalytic carbonylation as a general tool in synthetic organic chemistry. It deals exclusively with reactions involving the interconversion of carbon monoxide and organic carbonyl compounds, and although the majority of the reactions discussed involve catalytic formation of carbonyl compounds, potentially valuable syntheses requiring stoichiometric quantities of transition metal are also included. In addition, a chapter is devoted to the remarkably useful reverse transformation (decarbonylation), in which an organic carbonyl group is eliminated in the form of carbon monoxide.
The very best and latest advances compiled in a single volume-an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers . . . Here is the perfect introduction to chemistry under extreme or non-classical conditions, including use of high temperature species, high pressure, supercritical media, sonochemistry, and microwave chemistry. Written by leading experts in their respective fields, this unique text applies a unified approach to each method, including background, instrumentation, examples, information on industrial applications (where relevant), and sources for further reading. Featured topics: * Chemical Synthesis Using High Temperature Species * Effect of Pressure on Inorganic Reactions * Effect of Pressure on Organic Reactions * Organic Synthesis at High Pressure * Inorganic and Related Chemical Reactions in Supercritical Fluids * Organic Chemistry in Supercritical Fluids * Industrial and Environmental Applications of Supercritical Fluids * Ultrasound as a New Tool for Synthetic Chemists * Applications of High Intensity Ultrasound in Polymer Chemistry * Chemistry Under Extreme Conditions in Water Induced Electrohydraulic Cavitation and Pulsed-Plasma Discharges * Microwave Dielectric Heating Effects in Chemical Synthesis * Biomolecules Under Extreme Conditions
This reference offers a clear and concise review of modern synthetic techniques of metal complexes as well as lesser known gas- and solid-phase synthesis, electrosynthesis, and microwave and ultrasonic treatment of the reaction system.