This book provides a simple and unified approach to the mechanics of discontinuous-fibre reinforced composites, and introduces readers as generally as possible to the key concepts regarding the mechanics of elastic stress transfer, intermediate modes of stress transfer, plastic stress transfer, fibre pull-out, fibre fragmentation and matrix rupture. These concepts are subsequently applied to progressive stages of the loading process, through to the composite fractures. The book offers a valuable guide for advanced undergraduate and graduate students attending lecture courses on fibre composites. It is also intended for beginning researchers who wish to develop deeper insights into how discontinuous fibre provides reinforcement to composites, and for engineers, particularly those who wish to apply the concepts presented here to design and develop discontinuous-fibre reinforced composites.
This monograph consists of two volumes and provides a unified, comprehensive presentation of the important topics pertaining to the understanding and determination of the mechanical behaviour of engineering materials under different regimes of loading. The large subject area is separated into eighteen chapters and four appendices, all self-contained, which give a complete picture and allow a thorough understanding of the current status and future direction of individual topics. Volume I contains eight chapters and three appendices, and concerns itself with the basic concepts pertaining to the entire monograph, together with the response behaviour of engineering materials under static and quasi-static loading. Thus, Volume I is dedicated to the introduction, the basic concepts and principles of the mechanical response of engineering materials, together with the relevant analysis of elastic, elastic-plastic, and viscoelastic behaviour. Volume II consists of ten chapters and one appendix, and concerns itself with the mechanical behaviour of various classes of materials under dynamic loading, together with the effects of local and microstructural phenomena on the response behaviour of the material. Volume II also contains selected topics concerning intelligent material systems, and pattern recognition and classification methodology for the characterization of material response states. The monograph contains a large number of illustrations, numerical examples and solved problems. The majority of chapters also contain a large number of review problems to challenge the reader. The monograph can be used as a textbook in science and engineering, for third and fourth undergraduate levels, as well as for the graduate levels. It is also a definitive reference work for scientists and engineers involved in the production, processing and applications of engineering materials, as well as for other professionals who are involved in the engineering design process.
The main objective of this work is to significantly deepen the understanding of the material and the structural behaviour of continuous-discontinuous SMC composites, following a holistic approach to investigate microscopic aspects, macroscopic mechanical behaviour as well as failure evolution at the coupon, structure and component level. In addition, criteria to evaluate the effect of hybridisation are introduced and modelling approaches are presented and discussed.
Science and Engineering of Short Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites, Second Edition, provides the latest information on the ‘short fiber reinforced composites' (SFRP) that have found extensive applications in automobiles, business machines, durable consumer items, sporting goods and electrical industries due to their low cost, easy processing and superior mechanical properties over parent polymers. This updated edition presents new developments in this field of research and includes new chapters on electrical conductivity, structural monitoring, functional properties, self-healing, finite element method techniques, multi-scale SFRCs, and both modern computational and process engineering methods. Reviews the mechanical properties and functions of short fiber reinforced polymer composites (SFRP) Examines recent developments in the fundamental mechanisms of SFRP's Assesses major factors affecting mechanical performance, such as stress transfer and strength Includes new chapters on electrical conductivity, structural monitoring, functional properties, self-healing, finite element method techniques, multi-scale SFRCs, modern computational methods, and process engineering methods
This book is an overview of ESIS Technical Committee 4's activities since the mid-1980s. A wide range of tests is described and the numerous authors is a reflection of the wide and enthusiastic support we have had. With the establishment of the Technical Committee 4, two major areas were identified as appropriate for the activity. Firstly there was an urgent need for standard, fracture mechanics based, test methods to be designed for polymers and composites. A good deal of academic work had been done, but the usefulness to industry was limited by the lack of agreed standards. Secondly there was a perceived need to explore the use of such data in the design of plastic parts. Some modest efforts were made in early meetings to explore this, but little progress was made. In contrast things moved along briskly in the standards work and this has dominated the activity for the last fourteen years. The design issue remains a future goal.
Interfaces in Particle and Fibre-Reinforced Composites: From Macro- to Nanoscale addresses recent research findings on the particle-matrix interface at different length scales. The book's main focus is on the reinforcement of materials by particles that can result in a composite material of high stiffness and strength, but it also focuses on how the particle interacts with the (matrix) material, which may be a polymer, biological-based material, ceramic or conventional metal. The different types of particle reinforced composites are discussed, as is load transfer at the particle-matrix interface. Readers will learn how to select materials and about particle structure. Significant progress has been made in applying these approaches, thus making this book a timely piece on recent research findings on the particle-matrix interface at different length scales. Features wide coverage, from polymer, to ceramics and metal-based particulate composites Structured in a logical order to cover fundamental studies, computer simulations, experimental techniques and characterization
Offers information on the fundamental principles, processes, methods and procedures related to fibre-reinforced composites. The book presents a comparative view, and provides design properties of polymeric, metal, ceramic and cement matrix composites. It also gives current test methods, joining techniques and design methodologies.
Polymer-based fibre-reinforced composites FRC’s have now come out as a major class of structural materials being used or regarded as substituent’s for metals in several critical components in space, automotive and other industries (marine, and sports goods) owing to their low density, strength-weight ratio, and fatigue strength. FRC’s have several commercial as well as industrial applications ranging from aircraft, space, automotive, sporting goods, marine, and infrastructure. The above-mentioned applications of FRC’s clearly reveal that FRC’s have the potential to be used in a broad range of different engineering fields with the added advantages of low density, and resistance to corrosion compared to conventional metallic and ceramic composites. However, for scientists/researchers/R&D’s to fabricate FRC’s with such potential there should be careful and precise design followed by suitable process development based on properties like mechanical, physical, and thermal that are unique to each application. Hence the last few decades have witnessed considerable research on fibre reinforced composites. Fibre Reinforced Composites: Constituents, Compatibility, Perspectives and Applications presents a widespread all-inclusive review on fibre-reinforced composites ranging from the different types of processing techniques to chemical modification of the fibre surface to enhance the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and fibre and the structure-property relationship. It illustrates how high value composites can be produced by efficient and sustainable processing methods by selecting different constituents [fibres and resins]. Researchers in academia working in composites and accompanying areas [materials characterisation] and industrial manufacturers who need information on composite constituents and how they relate to each other for a certain application will find the book extremely useful when they need to make decisions about materials selection for their products. Focuses on the different types of FRC’s that are currently available (e.g. from polymeric matrices to metallic and ceramic matrices, from carbon fibre to different types of natural fibres and from short to long fibre reinforced), their processing techniques, characterization of different properties, and how to improve the interfacial adhesion between an incompatible fibre and matrix and their applications Looks at crisis areas such as how to incorporate incompatible fibres and matrices together (e.g. Non-polar polypropylene matrix is not compatible with that of polar natural fibres and hence suitable surface modifications are required to make them compatible with each other) along with low cost processing methods, low density and high strength Uncovers clarifications to both elementary and practical problems related to the fabrication of FRCs Schematic representations depicting the interaction between different fibre types and matrices will be provided in some chapters
In the past 50 years, great progress has been made in developing artificial fiber-reinforced composite materials, generally using filaments with microscopic diameters. An array of reinforcement forms can be used in commercial applications - with the microstructure being a critical factor in realizing the required properties in a material. This book comprehensively examines the application of advanced microstructural characterization techniques to fiber-reinforced composites.
Natural fibre composite is an emerging material that has great potential to be used in engineering application. Oil palm, sugar palm, bagasse, coir, banana stem, hemp, jute, sisal, kenaf, roselle, rice husk, betul nut husk and cocoa pod are among the natural fibres reported to be used as reinforcing materials in polymer composites. Natural fibre composites were used in many industries such as automotive, building, furniture, marine and aerospace industries. The advantages of natural fibre composites include low cost, renewable, abundance, light weight, less abrasive and they are suitable to be used in semi or non-structural engineering components. Research on various aspects of natural fibre composites such as characterization, determination of properties and design have been extensively carried out. However, publications that reported on research of manufacture of natural fibre composites are very limited. Specifically, although manufacturing methods of components from natural fibre composites are similar to those of components from conventional fibre composites such as glass, carbon and Kevlar fibres, modification of equipment used for conventional fibre composites may be required. This book fills the gap of knowledge in the field of natural fibre composites for the research community. Among the methods reported that are being used to produce components from natural fibre composites include hand lay-up, compression moulding, filament winding, injection moulding, resin transfer moulding, pultrusion and vacuum bag moulding. This book is also intended to address some research on secondary processing such as machining and laser welding of natural fibre composites. It is hoped that publication of this book will provide the readers new knowledge and understanding on the manufacture of natural fibre composites.
Finite element modelling of composite materials and structures provides an introduction to a technique which is increasingly being used as an analytical tool for composite materials. The text is presented in four parts: Part one sets the scene and reviews the fundamentals of composite materials together with the basic nature of FRP and its constituents. Two-dimensional stress-strain is covered, as is laminated plated theory and its limitations. Part two reviews the basic principles of FE analysis, starting with underlying theoretical issues and going on to show how elements are derived, a model is generated and results are processed. Part three builds on the basics of FE analysis and considers the particular issues that arise in applying finite elements to composites, especially to the layered nature of the material. Part four deals with the application of FE to FRP composites, presenting analytical models alongside FE representations. Specific issues addressed include interlaminar stresses, fracture delamination, joints and fatigue. This book is invaluable for students of materials science and engineering, and for engineers and others wishing to expand their knowledge of structural analysis. Covers important work on finite element analysis of composite material performance Based on material developed for an MSc course at Imperial College, London, UK Covers particular problems such as holes, free edges with FE results compared with experimental data and classical analysis