In a remarkable decade of public investment in higher education, some 200 new university campuses were established worldwide between 1961 and 1970. This volume offers a comparative and connective global history of these institutions, illustrating how their establishment, intellectual output and pedagogical experimentation sheds light on the social and cultural topography of the long 1960s. With an impressive geographic coverage - using case studies from Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia - the book explores how these universities have influenced academic disciplines and pioneered new types of teaching, architectural design and student experience. From educational reform in West Germany to the establishment of new institutions with progressive, interdisciplinary curricula in the Commonwealth, the illuminating case studies of this volume demonstrate how these universities shared in a common cause: the embodiment of 'utopian' ideals of living, learning and governance. At a time when the role of higher education is fiercely debated, Utopian Universities is a timely and considered intervention that offers a wide-ranging, historical dimension to contemporary predicaments.
This volume is an overview of, and commentary on, aspects of contemporary India and its socio-economic policies. It focuses on India’s economy and society in recent years, and in the process it addresses structural issues of development such as those of population, poverty, inequality, health, and social exclusion. It reviews the adequacy and appropriateness of governmental response to these problems, in terms of public policy, narrowly conceived, and philosophical orientation, more broadly conceived. The concern is not only with economic achievement and human development but also with the framework of civic rights, personal liberty, and institutional autonomy within which the exercise of governance is perceived to be carried out. The essays in this volume were originally written with the general-reader-as-involved-citizen very much in mind as the intended target. However, it should also be of interest to scholars of economics, political science, development studies, and South Asian studies.
The fourth volume in the Handbook of Comparative Economic Policies, this volume provides an overview of the development problems and experiences of developing countries. Written by renowned international experts, the chapters in the book provide the most comprehensive and current comparative studies available.
'Attitudinal change' in the context of economic reforms has been referred to in Rodrik and Subramanian (2005), DeLong (2003), Kohli (1989), and Panagariya (2004, 2008). This dissertation provides empirical support for this literature, establishing an earlier start for India's economic policy liberalisation than presented in stylized accounts. It demonstrates the endogenous nature of the origins of these policy shifts. 'Attitudinal change' literature had directed attention to the need for further research into India's policy changes of the early 1980s and for studying broader comparability issues in other developing countries. This research makes a contribution towards filling these gaps. This dissertation shows that India started its economic liberalisation under the Indira Gandhi administration from 1980 to 1984. These findings depart from the conventional view that India's economic policy changes were initiated by the Narasimha Rao government in 1991, or by the Rajiv Gandhi administration in the mid to late 1980s. The dissertation establishes that policy shifts of the early 1980s had endogenous origins in the political leadership's attitudinal changes. The Indira Gandhi administration of the early 1980s revisited the statist policies of its previous tenure from 1966 to 1977. The new approach entailed more openness towards private enterprise, scaling back the role of the public sector, and starting India's integration into the global economy. The dissertation also discusses the comparable role of attitudinal changes at the start of China's policy liberalisation led by Deng Xiaoping from 1978 to 1982. It focuses on the significance and challenges faced by China's political leadership in bringing about societal attitudinal change. The dissertation concludes by drawing comparisons between India and China, developing a linkage between their endogenous attitudinal changes and economic policy liberalisation.
Poverty and unemployment are the two most formidable problems of the Indian economy. Developing employment opportunities has been an important objective of development planning in India. Though employment has increased over the years, growth in the population and the labor force has aggravated the unemployment problem year after year. The achievement of an employment-for-all objective is nowhere in sight. Due to lack of employment opportunities, millions of people still live below the poverty line. More distressingly, there is no hope of the two formidable problems of poverty and unemployment being solved in the near future. India's tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) document has recognized that the unemployment problem would be aggravated, much less mitigated, during the Plan period and thereafter. The Indian economy took a new direction when the government announced its new industrial policy in the Parliament in July 1991. Since then, the economic reforms process has encompassed all areas of the economy. The wide-ranging reforms, initiated and implemented since 1991, have induced greater efficiency and competitiveness in all spheres of economic activity. How these reforms have impacted on the growth pattern, in terms of employment generation and reduction in poverty, is a matter of intense debate among economists and social scientists. This book examines these concerns, contributing to the existing and growing body of literature on various aspects of economic reforms in India.