Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even then, practical applications for electricity were few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. When you have completed this book, you should be able to describe the principles of electron flow, static electricity, conductors, and insulators and discuss basic electrical concepts and principles of magnetism.

This landmark work chronicles the origin and evolution of solid state physics, which grew to maturity between 1920 and 1960. The book examines the early roots of the field in industrial, scientific and artistic efforts and traces them through the 1950s, when many physicists around the world recognized themselves as members of a distinct subfield of physics research centered on solids. The book opens with an account of scientific and social developments that preceded the discovery of quantum mechanics, including the invention of new experimental means for studying solids and the establishment of the first industrial laboratories. The authors set the stage for the modern era by detailing the formulation of the quantum field theory of solids. The core of the book examines six major themes: the band theory of solids; the phenomenology of imperfect crystals; the puzzle of the plastic properties of solids, solved by the discovery of dislocations; magnetism; semiconductor physics; and collective phenomena, the context in which old puzzles such as superconductivity and superfluidity were finally solved. All readers interested in the history of science will find this absorbing volume an essential resource for understanding the emergence of contemporary physics.

These two volumes deal with the quantum theory of the electronic structure of molecules. Implicit in the term ab initio is the notion that approximate solutions of Schrödinger's equation are sought "from the beginning," i. e. , without recourse to experimental data. From a more pragmatic viewpoint, the distin guishing feature of ab initio theory is usually the fact that no approximations are involved in the evaluation of the required molecular integrals. Consistent with current activity in the field, the first of these two volumes contains chapters dealing with methods per se, while the second concerns the application of these methods to problems of chemical interest. In asense, the motivation for these volumes has been the spectacular recent success of ab initio theory in resolving important chemical questions. However, these applications have only become possible through the less visible but equally important efforts of those develop ing new theoretical and computational methods and models. Henry F Schaefer Vll Contents Contents of Volume 4 XIX Chapter 1. Gaussian Basis Sets for Molecular Calculations Thom. H. Dunning, Ir. and P. Ieffrey Hay 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. 1. Slater Functions and the Hydrogen Moleeule 1 1. 2. Gaussian Functions and the Hydrogen Atom 3 2. Hartree-Fock Calculations on the First Row Atoms 5 2. 1. Valence States of the First Row Atoms 6 7 2. 2. Rydberg States of the First Row Atoms 9 2. 3.

Nearly all of this book is taken from an article prepared for a volume of the Encyclopedia of Physics. This article, in turn, is partly based on Dr. Norbert Rosenzweig's translation of an older article on the same subject, written by one of us (H.A.B.) about 25 years ago for the Geiger-Scheel Handbuch der Physik. To the article written last year we have added some Addenda and Errata. These Addenda and Errata refer back to some of the 79 sections of the main text and contain some misprint corrections, additional references and some notes. The aim of this book is two-fold. First, to act as a reference work on calcu lations pertaining to hydrogen-like and helium-like atoms and their comparison with experiments. However, these calculations involve a vast array of approximation methods, mathematical tricks and physical pictures, which are also useful in the application of quantum mechanics to other fields. In many sections we have given more general discussions of the methods and physical ideas than is necessary for the study of the H- and He-atom alone. We hope that this book will thus at least partly fulfill its second aim, namely to be of some use to graduate students who wish to learn "applied quantum mechanics". A basic knowledge of the principles of quantum mechanics, such as given in the early chapters of Schiff's or Bohm's book, is presupposed.