In this collection, Esther Raizen explores the significance and value of Hebrew poetry written in response to the wars in which Israel was involved during the last fifty years. The anthology includes the works of many poets, some as well known as Nathan Altherman and Yehudah Amichai and others less known. The poems, presented in both English and Hebrew, depict war as viewed by the soldier, as reflected upon by civilians, and as a force giving rise to the creation of poetry. Raizen explores in an introductory essay the issue of whether poetry written with a defined political message and in the context of certain historical events can function adequately on the aesthetic level. She also tracks the changes in the characteristics of Israeli war poetry from 1948 to 1991, beginning with the glorified patriotism expected in the 1930s-1940s and progressing to the critical ideas in the later years, during which poetry is characterized by understatement and cynicism.
Studies of the fear of crime have constituted what is undeniably the fastest growing research area within criminology in the last decade and this shows no sign of diminishing. The editors have a distinguished record of innovative research in the field, being responsible for a number of seminal empirical and theoretical articles. In this volume, they have collected together and for the first time, all the most significant contributions to the field. The collection includes an introductory essay by the editors and articles reflecting: an overview of the field; the causes of vulnerability; the sources of information on victimisation; the methods used to survey fear; the theoretical models employed to explain it; and the nature of policies designed to reduce fear.
Over the past four decades the fear of crime has become an increasingly significant concern for criminologists, victimologists, policy makers, politicians, police, the media and the general public. For many practitioners reducing fear of crime has become almost as important an issue as reducing crime itself. The identification of fear of crime as a serious policy problem has given rise to a massive amount of research activity, political discussion and intellectual debate. Despite this activity, actually reducing levels of fear of crime has proved difficult. Even in recent years when many western nations have experienced reductions in the levels of reported crime, fear of crime has often proven intractable. The result has been the development of what amounts to a fear of crime industry. Previous studies have identified conceptual challenges, theoretical cul-de-sacs and methodological problems with the use of the concept fear of crime. Yet it has endured as both an organizing principal for a body of research and a term to describe a social malady. This provocative, wide ranging book asks how and why fear of crime retains this cultural, political and social scientific currency despite concerted criticism of its utility? It subjects the concept to rigorous critical scrutiny taking examples from the UK, North America and Australia. Part One of Inventing Fear of Crime traces the historical emergence of the fear of crime concept, while Part Two addresses the issue of fear of crime and political rationality, and analyses fear of crime as a tactic or technique of government. This book will be essential reading on one of the key issues in government and politics in contemporary society.
As a subject area of inquiry and research, fear of crime and punitiveness have played an increasingly important role in criminology. Since the early 1990s, and emanating largely from within the United States, there has been a growing body of research as well as increased attention given to the subject by the media and policy-makers. In part, triggered by the fact that the Unites States has the highest imprisonment rate (approx. 780/100,000 in 2012) in the Western world and still has the death penalty in most states, increasing attention has been paid to the impact of peoples' perceptions of crime, their fear of possible victimization, and their sense of punitivity to-wards offenders. And although the body of literature on fear of crime and puntivity has been growing, there still remain many regions and countries of the world where there is a dearth of such research. This collection includes several of the countries where such research represents the first of its kind. The reader will be provided a broad overview of the subject and presented with varied observations about fear of crime and punitivity from different parts of the world. As the project represents a novel and exploratory venture into the subject area, the collective content provided in this collection will hopefully also serve to advance future research and inform sentencing policy and initiatives to address fear of crime. This volume includes seven comparable reports in which the contributors used a common standardized survey to collect data on fear of crime and punitivity among post-secondary students. The countries represent a cross-section of different legal, political, and cultural systems. The countries also vary in their degree of criminal justice development and in terms of the rights of victims. In each of the contribu-tions, the author(s) provide an overview of their country before discussing the results of the survey they administered. The articles are prepared in a manner that allow varying degrees of comparison as well as recommendations for the future di-rection of this relatively new area of international inquiry. - Cover.
Mass incarceration and lower crime rates have not made city dwellers feel safe. Programs designed to deal with this problem focus on increased police protection. In this study, Lewis and Salem question the validity of these assumptions and the effectiveness of this approach. Their five-year investigation challenged theories that focused only on the psychological responses to victimization and failed to take into account the social and political environments within which such fears are created. From a “social control” perspective which informs their research and analysis, the authors examined the fear of crime in ten neighborhoods in Chicago, San Francisco, and Philadelphia which represent the range of communities typically found in urban areas. The authors contend that fear of crime is not related to exposure or knowledge about criminal events alone, but also stems from residents’ concerns about changes in their neighborhoods. Many people, they argue, are afraid of crime because they believe that they have lost control over their local communities. Their conclusions remain as valid as when this book was first published in 1986. Lewis and Salem consider ways to restore the control that community residents feel they have lost and consider the possibilities for a more equitable distribution of security in urban areas.
The Routledge International Handbook on Fear of Crime brings together original and international state of the art contributions of theoretical, empirical, policy-related scholarship on the intersection of perceptions of crime, victimisation, vulnerability and risk. This is timely as fear of crime has now been a focus of scholarly and policy interest for some fifty years and shows little sign of abating. Research on fear of crime is demonstrative of the inter-disciplinarity of criminology, drawing in the disciplines of sociology, psychology, political science, history, cultural studies, gender studies, planning and architecture, philosophy and human geography. This collection draws in many of these interdisciplinary themes. This collections also extends the boundaries of fear of crime research. It does this both methodologically and conceptually, but perhaps more importantly it moves us beyond some of the often repeated debates in this field to focus on novel topics from unique perspectives. The book begins by plotting the history of fear of crime’s development, then moves on to investigate the methodological and theoretical debates that have ensued and the policy transfer that occurred across jurisdictions. Key elements in debates and research on fear of crime concerning gender, race and ethnicity are covered, as are contemporary themes in fear of crime research, such as regulation, security, risk and the fear of terrorism, the mapping of fear of crime and fear of crime beyond urban landscapes. The final sections of the book explore geographies of fear and future and unique directions for this research.
Since first emerging as an issue of concern in the late 1960s, fear of crime has become one of the most researched topics in contemporary criminology and receives considerable attention in a range of other disciplines including social ecology, social psychology and geography. Researchers looking the subject have consistently uncovered alarming characteristics, primarily relating to the behavioural responses that people adopt in relation to their fear of crime. This book reports on research conducted over the past eight years, in which efforts have been made to pioneer the combination of techniques from behavioural geography with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in order to map the fear of crime. The first part of the book outlines the history of research into fear of crime, with an emphasis on the many approaches that have been used to investigate the problem and the need for a spatially-explicit approach. The second part provides a technical break down of the GIS-based techniques used to map fear of crime and summarises key findings from two separate study sites. The authors describe collective avoidance behaviour in relation to disorder decline models such as the Broken Windows Thesis, the potential to integrate fear mapping with police-community partnerships and emerging avenues for further research. Issues discussed include fear of crime in relation to housing prices and disorder, the use of fear mapping as a means with which to monitor the impact of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and fear mapping in transit environments.