Fiber Technology for Fiber-Reinforced Composites provides a detailed introduction to fiber reinforced composites, explaining the mechanics of fiber reinforced composites, along with information on the various fiber types, including manufacturing of fibers (starting from monomers and precursors), fiber spinning techniques, testing of fibers, and surface modification of fibers. As material technologies develop, composite materials are becoming more and more important in transportation, construction, electronics, sporting goods, the defense industry, and other areas of research. Many engineers working in industry and academics at universities are trying to manufacture composite materials using a limited number of fiber types with almost no information on fiber technology, fiber morphology, fiber properties, and fiber sizing agents. This book fills that gap in knowledge. Unique in that it focuses on a broad range of different fiber types used in composites manufacturing Contains contributions from leading experts working in both industry and academia Provides comprehensive coverage on both natural and nanofibers
Natural fibers and their composites have a long and important place in the history of human creativity and industry. Increasing consumer interest in "green" products made with sustainable materials, along with the rising cost of petroleum - the basic ingredient of synthetic fibers - have once again brought natural fibers and their composites to the fore. The renewed interest in natural fibers is only a few decades old. Thus, the pioneering work of current researchers in this new era of natural fiber composites will help to illuminate the path for future researchers as they explore new potentialities for natural fibers. Sabu Thomas and Laly Pothen, themselves leaders in the field, bring together cutting edge research by eminent scientists in Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites. Covering the latest research trends such as nano technology, the book will be a valuable resource for the natural fiber composite researcher.
This book comprehensively and systematically introduces the microstructure characteristics of plant fibers and the manufacturing process, interface characteristics, mechanical behaviors and physical properties of plant fiber reinforced composites, as well as their engineering demonstration applications. Plant fibers derived from natural resources have been thrust into the global spotlight as environment-friendly materials with attractive advantages of renewability, biodegradability, high specific strength and modulus and good sound absorption and heat insulation performance, and have become promising alternative to traditional synthetic fibers in making fiber-reinforced composites with structure-function integration. This book combines the basic theory with engineering applications for highlighting the unique research method for plant fiber reinforced composites with hierarchical structure. It is intended for undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in natural fiber composites, and scientific researchers and engineers looking to develop the design and manufacture of green composites in the fields of aerospace, railway transportation vehicles, automotive engineering and civil infrastructures.
Polymer-based fibre-reinforced composites FRC’s have now come out as a major class of structural materials being used or regarded as substituent’s for metals in several critical components in space, automotive and other industries (marine, and sports goods) owing to their low density, strength-weight ratio, and fatigue strength. FRC’s have several commercial as well as industrial applications ranging from aircraft, space, automotive, sporting goods, marine, and infrastructure. The above-mentioned applications of FRC’s clearly reveal that FRC’s have the potential to be used in a broad range of different engineering fields with the added advantages of low density, and resistance to corrosion compared to conventional metallic and ceramic composites. However, for scientists/researchers/R&D’s to fabricate FRC’s with such potential there should be careful and precise design followed by suitable process development based on properties like mechanical, physical, and thermal that are unique to each application. Hence the last few decades have witnessed considerable research on fibre reinforced composites. Fibre Reinforced Composites: Constituents, Compatibility, Perspectives and Applications presents a widespread all-inclusive review on fibre-reinforced composites ranging from the different types of processing techniques to chemical modification of the fibre surface to enhance the interfacial adhesion between the matrix and fibre and the structure-property relationship. It illustrates how high value composites can be produced by efficient and sustainable processing methods by selecting different constituents [fibres and resins]. Researchers in academia working in composites and accompanying areas [materials characterisation] and industrial manufacturers who need information on composite constituents and how they relate to each other for a certain application will find the book extremely useful when they need to make decisions about materials selection for their products. Focuses on the different types of FRC’s that are currently available (e.g. from polymeric matrices to metallic and ceramic matrices, from carbon fibre to different types of natural fibres and from short to long fibre reinforced), their processing techniques, characterization of different properties, and how to improve the interfacial adhesion between an incompatible fibre and matrix and their applications Looks at crisis areas such as how to incorporate incompatible fibres and matrices together (e.g. Non-polar polypropylene matrix is not compatible with that of polar natural fibres and hence suitable surface modifications are required to make them compatible with each other) along with low cost processing methods, low density and high strength Uncovers clarifications to both elementary and practical problems related to the fabrication of FRCs Schematic representations depicting the interaction between different fibre types and matrices will be provided in some chapters
Natural Fiber-Reinforced Composites In-depth overview of thermal analysis of natural fiber-reinforced composites In Natural Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Thermal Properties and Applications, a team of distinguished researchers has delivered a comprehensive overview of the thermal properties of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The book brings together information currently dispersed throughout the scientific literature and offers viable and environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional composites. The book highlights the thermal analysis of natural fiber-reinforced composites with techniques such as Thermogravimetric Analysis, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Thermomechanical Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, etc. This book provides: A thorough review of the thermal characterization of natural fiber-based hybrid composites Detailed investigation of the thermal properties of polymer composites reinforced with various natural fibers such as flax fiber, pineapple leaf fiber, sisal, sugar palm, grass fiber and cane fiber Discussions on the thermal properties of hybrid natural fiber-reinforced composites with various thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers Influence of nanofillers on the thermal stability and thermal decomposition characteristics of the natural fiber-based hybrid composites Natural Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Thermal Properties and Applications is a must-read for materials scientists, polymer chemists, and professionals working in the industry. This book is ideal for readers seeking to make an informed decision regarding materials selection for applications involving thermal insulation and elevated temperature. The suitability of natural fiber-reinforced composites in the automotive, mechanical, and civil engineering sectors is highlig
Natural and Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Composites Discover a comprehensive exploration of fiber reinforced polymers by an expert team of editors Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites offer several unique properties that make them ideal for use in a wide range of industries, from automotive and aerospace to marine, construction, and co-industrial. In Natural and Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications, a distinguished team of mechanical engineers delivers a comprehensive overview of fiber reinforced composites. This edited volume includes thorough discussions of glass-, cotton-, and carbon-fiber reinforced materials, as well as the tribological properties and non-structural applications of synthetic fiber composites. Readers will also find practical explorations of the structural evolution, mechanical features, and future possibilities of fiber, textile, and nano-cementitious materials. The physical and chemical properties of cotton fiber-based composites are explored at length, as are the extraordinary mechanical, thermal, electrical, electronic, and field emission properties of carbon nanotubes. This singular book also includes: A thorough discussion of recent advancements in natural fiber reinforced polymer composites, their implications, and the opportunities that arise as a result A comprehensive exploration of the thermal behavior of natural fiber-based composites An insightful review of the literature on sisal fiber with polymer matrices A response to the growing research gap in the existing literature regarding natural fiber-based polymer composites and solutions to address it Perfect for scientists, engineers, professors, and students working in areas involving natural and synthetic reinforced polymers and composites, Natural and Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications offers a one-of-a-kind resource to help readers understand a critical and rapidly evolving technology.
Optical microscopy is one of the most valuable--but under utilized--tools for analyzing fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. This hands-on instructional book covers everything: sample preparation, microscopic techniques, and applications. The power of optical microscopy to study the microstructure of these heterogeneous, anisotropic materials is illustrated with over 180 full color images.
The study and application of composite materials are a truly interdisciplinary endeavour that has been enriched by contributions from chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics and manufacturing engineering. The understanding of the interface (or interphase) in composites is the central point of this interdisciplinary effort. From the early development of composite materials of various nature, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. While there are many reference books available on composite materials, few of them deal specifically with the science and mechanics of the interface of fiber reinforced composites. Further, many recent advances devoted solely to research in composite interfaces have been scattered in a variety of published literature and have yet to be assembled in a readily accessible form. To this end this book is an attempt to bring together recent developments in the field, both from the materials science and mechanics perspective, in a single convenient volume. The central theme of the book is tailoring the interface properties to optimise the mechanical peformance and structural integrity of composites with enhanced strength/stiffness and fracture toughness (or specific fracture resistance). It deals mainly with interfaces in advanced composites made from high performance fibers, such as glass, carbon, aramid, ultra high modulus polyethylene and some inorganic (e.g. B/W, A12O3, SiC) fibers, and matrix materials encompassing polymers, metals/alloys and ceramics. The book is intended to provide a comprehensive treatment of composite interfaces in such a way that it should be of interest to materials scientists, technologists and practising engineers, as well as graduate students and their supervisors in advanced composites. We hope that this book will also serve as a valuable source of reference to all those involved in the design and research of composite interfaces. The book contains eight chapters of discussions on microstructure-property relationships with underlying fundamental mechanics principles. In Chapter 1, an introduction is given to the nature and definition of interfaces in fiber reinforced composites. Chapter 2 is devoted to the mechanisms of adhesion which are specific to each fiber-matrix system, and the physio-chemical characterization of the interface with regard to the origin of adhesion. The experimental techniques that have been developed to assess the fiber-matrix interface bond quality on a microscopic scale are presented in Chapter 3, along with the techniques of measuring interlaminar/intralaminar strengths and fracture toughness using bulk composite laminates. The applicability and limitations associated with loading geometry and interpretation of test data are compared. Chapter 4 presents comprehensive theoretical analyses based on shear-lag models of the single fiber composite tests, with particular interest being placed on the interface debond process and the nature of the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding. Chapter 5 is devoted to reviewing current techniques of fiber surface treatments which have been devised to improve the bond strength and the fiber-matrix compatibility/stability during the manufacturing processes of composites. The micro-failure mechanisms and their associated theories of fracture toughness of composites are discussed in Chapter 6. The roles of the interface and its effects on the mechanical performance of fiber composites are addressed from several viewpoints. Recent research efforts to augment the transverse and interlaminar fracture toughness by means of controlled interfaces are presented in Chapters 7 and 8.
Nano- and micro-sized natural fibers of vegetable origin are fully biodegradable in nature. However, the nano- and micro-sized synthetic fibers are fully man-made. Fiber-reinforced composites composed of stiffened fiber and matrix are well-known engineering materials. Fiber-reinforced materials have been used in industrial production. Natural fibers can be obtained from many sources in nature such as wool, sisal, ramie, kenaf, jute, hemp, grass, flax, cotton, coir, bamboo and abaca, banana, and sugarcane bagasse. Artificial fibers have been produced from more stiff materials such as glass, single-walled carbon nanotubes, double-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon, aramid, boron and polyethylene (PE). The cyclic reusability of materials is an important qualification in protecting the environment from waste pollution. Three important factors can be mentioned in terms of material properties in the recycling process. The first factor is "the rate of cyclic usage," the second one is "less material loss in each recycle," and the last one is "the role of waste products in the self-renewal of ecosystem." In engineering area, the usage of waste materials has taken into account in production of composite materials. The use of waste materials as particulate-type composite production is also possible in the industry. Fiber-reinforced materials can be grouped into two categories: "the natural fiber-reinforced materials" and "the artificially produced fiber-reinforced materials." Finally, we conclude that this book consists of mainly summarized three subject headings within the two specific book subsections : The first group contains the main subjects related to the natural and artificial fibers obtained by literature review; second, experimental and numerical studies are made in order to perform the necessary arrangements in the production stages and to establish a decision mechanism on the specification of the technical properties of the fiber-reinforced composites. The third group of studies focused on the use of sustainable bio-composites and recycled textile wastes as reinforcements in construction.
This book covers several aspects of the fatigue behavior of textile and short fiber reinforced composites. The first part is dedicated to 2D and 3D reinforced textile composites and includes a systematic description of the damage evolution for quasi-static and tensile-tensile fatigue loadings. Acoustic emissions and digital image correlation are considered in order to detect the damage modes’ initiation and development. The acoustic emission thresholds of the quasi-static loading are connected to the “fatigue limit” of the materials with distinctions for glass and carbon reinforcements. The second part is devoted to the fatigue behavior of injection molded short fiber reinforced composites. Experimental evidence highlights the dependence of their fatigue response on various factors: fiber and matrix materials, fiber distribution, environmental and loading conditions are described. A hybrid (experimental/simulations) multi-scale method is presented, which drastically reduces the amount of experimental data necessary for reliable fatigue life predictions.