Issues in debates about foreign currency exposure—the denomination of liabilities or assets in foreign currency. The foreign currency denomination of contracts in international transactions can lead to international currency exposure at the country level with important economic and policy implications. When debts are denominated in foreign currency and revenues in domestic currency, exchange rate fluctuations can result in balance sheet effects for countries with either net asset or liability positions. Moreover, currency mismatch between assets and liabilities can be a cause for crises in developing and emerging economies. This book looks at the issues surrounding foreign currency exposure in today's increasingly integrated world economy. The contributors draw on cross-country as well as country-specific data. They consider international currency risk after the Swiss franc ended its one-sided peg with the euro, for example, and the foreign exchange positions of firms in Turkey and Russia. Other contributors take macroeconomic perspectives, examining the potential effects of exchange rate realignment, the pressure to appreciate on countries with current account surpluses, and the currency exposure in international trade. Finally, contributors consider the issue from finance and political economy perspectives, addressing the phenomenon of the forward premium puzzle and discussing geopolitical aspects ascending currencies. Contributors Fatih Altunok, Huseyin Aytug, Agustín S. Bénétrix, Jörg Breitung, Paul De Grauwe, Eiji Fujii, Peter Garber, Juann H. Hung, Signe Krogstrup, Philip R. Lane, Katja Mann, Arif Oduncu, Gunther Schnabl, Maria V. Sokolova, Cédric Tille
In contrast to speculative, sweeping literature on globalization Global Exposure in East Asia grounds globalization theories in a detailed empirical analysis, providing a systematic investigation of what until now have been grand narratives of huge global phenomena. This book presents a micro-level explanation of globalization by examining individual global exposure and its influence in the values and perceptions of individuals, contending that individual and personal global experience, or 'microglobalization', is a key variable in understanding how modern mobile persons act and think in ways different from those who remain geographically immobile and constrained. Drawing on detailed empirical evidence from China, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, Global Exposure in East Asia explores the structures of global exposure and their influences on values and identities in contemporary East Asia. A rich, comparative and grounded examination of modern theories of globalization, this book introduces an innovative perspective that highlights the significance of microglobalization in understanding quotidian lives in a context of ever expanding transnational exchanges and connectivities. As such, it will appeal to social scientists with interests in globalization, cosmopolitanism, mobility, migration and transnationalism, (national) identity and everyday life.
International Finance and Open-Economy Macroeconomics provides a complete theoretical, historical, and policy-focused account of the international financial system that covers all of the standard topics, such as foreign exchange markets, balance of payments accounting, macroeconomic policy in an open economy, exchange rate crises, multinational enterprises, and international financial markets. The book uses the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference as a unifying theme to relate the many controversial issue. It is written in a lively manner to bring real world events into the discussion of all of the concepts, topics, and policy issues. There is also emphasis on the history of economic thought in order to explain how economists in different time periods dealt with international financial issues.
The aim of radiation protection standards is to make the radiation workplace as safe as is humanly possible. The gradual evolution over the last 20 years has been towards a more precise definition of the limits for occupational exposure. These have been created not only in terms of short-term effects but also more importantly in terms of long-term risks involving such problems as the potential for carcinogenesis and genetic change. In the United States the National Committee for Radiation Protection has recom mended that 5 rems (50 mSv) should remain as the maximum permissible dose equiva lent for total body exposure. This would represent the sum of internal and external ex posure and should be regarded as the upper limit allowed. The community of radiation users is required to conduct its operations in such a man ner that the absolute value of the individual's dose equivalent in rems does not exceed his age in years. There should be additional limits for tissues and organs based on short term effects. Therefore, individual organs are limited to dose equivalents low enough to ensure that the dose threshold values are not exceeded.
This collected volume of authoritative articles represents the state-of-the-art in arsenic research. Arsenic experts from around the world, participants in the Fourth International Conference on Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects organized by the Society of Environmental Geochemistry and Health in 2000, present their critical findings. A vital contribution to arsenic study and policy making, this volume examines the global impact of the toxin and discusses arsenic in the environment, mechanisms of arsenic metabolism and carcinogenesis, water treatment technology, and medical care. Arsenic Exposure and Health Effects offers informed, challenging insights into a highly important and controversial topic.
Exposure and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Use in Agriculture: Approaches, Tools and Advances offers an overview of the different methods available in toxicology for pesticide exposure and risk assessment, ranging from the regulatory field, to in-field research studies. The book provides technical background on each method, describing known and grounded tools, new uses of tools and development prospects. This book is ideal for researchers in pesticide toxicology, exposure toxicology, toxicologic risk assessment, occupational hygiene and medicine, and pesticide toxicology as well as occupational health and industrial hygiene practitioners, regulatory experts of corporate and public bodies, and advanced students. Covers pesticide exposure and risk assessment, ranging from fundamentals to advanced theory Explains methods that are useful for both experts and non-experts Details the use of each method for exposure and risk assessment, also including links to additional resources and further reading
Written by experts, Exposure Analysis is the first complete resource in the emerging scientific discipline of exposure analysis. A comprehensive source on the environmental pollutants that affect human health, the book discusses human exposure through pathways including air, food, water, dermal absorption, and, for children, non-food ingestion. The book summarizes existing definitions of exposure, dose, and related concepts and provides the mathematical framework at the heart of these conceptual definitions. Using secondhand smoke as an example, the book illustrates how exposure analysis studies can change human behavior and improve public health. An extensive section on air pollutants considers volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), fine and ultrafine particles, and the latest personal air quality monitors for measuring individual exposure. Another detailed section examines exposures to pesticides, metals such as lead, and dioxin that may occur through multiple routes such as air, food, and dust ingestion. The book explores important aspects of dermal exposure such as the absorption of volatile organic compounds while showering or bathing and exposure through multiple carrier media. The authors describe quantitative methods that have been validated for predicting the concentrations in enclosed everyday locations, such as automobiles and rooms of the home. They also discuss existing laws and examine the relationship between exposure and national policies. Defining the new field of exposure analysis, this book provides the basic tools needed to identify sources, understand causes, measure exposures, and develop strategies for improving public health.
Over seven chapters the book shows how international communication has been shaped by the structure of international political power and how these means of global communication have in turn been strategic tools for the exercise of international political power. There are separate chapters on global news flows, the international trade in cultural products (films, books, advertising, recorded music, periodicals and books), and government propaganda activities. The politics of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Universal Postal Union (UPU) and the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) are analysed.
2021 ASHE/CIHE Award for Significant Research on International Higher Education U.S. Power in International Higher Education explores how internationalization in higher education is not just an educational endeavor, but also a geopolitical one. By centering and making explicit the role of power, the book demonstrates the United States’s advantage in international education as well as the changing geopolitical realities that will shape the field in the future. The chapter authors are leading critical scholars of international higher education, with diverse scholarly ties and professional experiences within the country and abroad. Taken together, the chapters provide broad trends as well as in-depth accounts about how power is evident across a range of key international activities. This book is intended for higher education scholars and practitioners with the aim of raising greater awareness on the unequal power dynamics in internationalization activities and for the purposes of promoting more just practices in higher education globally.
Residential Exposure Assessment: A Source Book is the result of a multiyear effort known as the Residential Exposure Assessment Project (REAP) which was initiated by the Society for Risk Analysis and the International Society of Exposure Analysis. This textbook is the primary product of the REAP and it contains contributions from over 30 professionals from a variety of disciplines such as chemistry, biology, physics, engi neering, industrial hygiene, toxicology, pharmacology, and environmental law, reflecting the diverse knowledge and resources necessary to assess and manage potential exposures occurring in and around the home. Expert working groups were organized for each of the 13 chapters to address such issues as U. S. legislation relevant to products used in and around the residence, methods for measuring and modeling exposures across multiple pathways and routes, and distributional data available for key residential exposure factors. This volume is a compendium of information about predictive methods and tools, monitoring methods, data sources, and key variables that characterize exposures in the residential setting. It presents approaches for doing exposure assessments in and around all types of residences. The purpose of the Source Book is to provide a resource for use in educational programs and for "practitioners" of residential exposure assessment. Accordingly, this book is intended for risk assessors, exposure assessors, students, initi ates new to the concept of risk assessment, industrial hygienists assessing health hazards in the home, engineers, and monitoring specialists.
This timely publication concentrates on the exposure to pesticides by agricultural workers and residential users of pesticides through inhalation and physical contact. The book discusses more recently discovered risks such as pesticides on indoor carpets and includes new trends in data interpretation. Occupational & Residential Exposure Assessment for Pesticides complements the other title on pesticide exposure in the series - Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water, by Hamilton/Crossley and is a must for all professionals in the Pesticide Industry as well as academics.