With this self-contained, introductory text, readers will easily understand the fundamentals of microwave and radar image generation. Written with the complete novice in mind, and including an easy-to-follow introduction to electromagnetic scattering theory, it covers key topics such as forward models of scattering for interpreting S-parameter and time-dependent voltage data, S-parameters and their analytical sensitivity formulae, basic methods for real-time image reconstruction using frequency-sweep and pulsed-radar signals, and metrics for evaluating system performance. Numerous application examples and practical tutorial exercises provided throughout allow quick understanding of key concepts, and sample MATLAB codes implementing key reconstruction algorithms accompany the book online. This one-stop resource is ideal for graduate students taking introductory courses in microwave imaging, as well as researchers and industry professionals wanting to learn the fundamentals of the field.
This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive beamforming algorithms. In a similar fashion, microwave tomographic reconstruction algorithms are reviewed in the following chapter, introducing the reader to both the fundamental and more advanced algorithms. Apart from imaging, the book also reviews research efforts in extracting clinically useful information from the Radar Target Signature of breast tumours, which is used to classify tumours as either benign or malignant. Finally, the book concludes by describing the current state of the art in terms of prototype microwave breast imaging systems, with a particular emphasis on those which have progressed to the clinical evaluation stage. This work is motivated by the fact that breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death amongst women in Europe and the US, and the second most common cancer in the world today. Such an important area of research will appeal to many scholars and practitioners.p>
Microwave Imaging Methods and Applications provides practitioners and researchers with a complete overview of the latest and most important noninvasive and nondestructive techniques for inspecting structures and bodies by using microwaves. Placing emphasis on applications, the book considers many areas, from medical imaging and security… to industrial engineering and subsurface prospection. For each application, readers are presented with the objectives of the inspection and related challenges. Moreover, this groundbreaking resource details computational methods that can be used to solve inverse problems related to specific applications. Including clear examples or the most significant practical results, this forward-looking reference focuses on systems that have been recently developed. Professionals gain the knowledge needed to compare imaging methods used in different applications and develop new uses of imaging apparatuses and systems.
Introduction to Microwave Remote Sensing offers an extensive overview of this versatile and extremely precise technology for technically oriented undergraduates and graduate students. This textbook emphasizes an important shift in conceptualization and directs it toward students with prior knowledge of optical remote sensing: the author dispels any linkage between microwave and optical remote sensing. Instead, he constructs the concept of microwave remote sensing by comparing it to the process of audio perception, explaining the workings of the ear as a metaphor for microwave instrumentation. This volume takes an “application-driven” approach. Instead of describing the technology and then its uses, this textbook justifies the need for measurement then explains how microwave technology addresses this need. Following a brief summary of the field and a history of the use of microwaves, the book explores the physical properties of microwaves and the polarimetric properties of electromagnetic waves. It examines the interaction of microwaves with matter, analyzes passive atmospheric and passive surface measurements, and describes the operation of altimeters and scatterometers. The textbook concludes by explaining how high resolution images are created using radars, and how techniques of interferometry can be applied to both passive and active sensors.
Microwave imaging techniques allow for the development of systems that are able to inspect, identify, and characterize in a noninvasive fashion under different scenarios, ranging from biomedical to subsurface diagnostics as well as from surveillance and security applications to nondestructive evaluation. Such great opportunities, though, are actually severely limited by difficulties arising from the solution of the underlying inverse scattering problem. As a result, ongoing research efforts in this area are devoted to developing inversion strategies and experimental apparatus so that they are as reliable and accurate as possible with respect to reconstruction capabilities and resolution performance, respectively. The intent of this Special Issue is to present the experiences of leading scientists in the electromagnetic inverse scattering community, as well as to serve as an assessment tool for people who are new to the area of microwave imaging and electromagnetic inverse scattering problems.
An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging—a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves—has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging—including reconstruction procedures and imaging systems and apparatus—enabling the reader to use microwaves for diagnostic purposes in a wide range of applications. This hands-on resource features: A review of the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem formulation, written from an engineering perspective and with notations The most effective reconstruction techniques based on diffracted waves, including time- and frequency-domain methods, as well as deterministic and stochastic space-domain procedures Currently proposed imaging apparatus, aimed at fast and accurate measurements of the scattered field data Insight on near field probes, microwave axial tomographs, and microwave cameras and scanners A discussion of practical applications with detailed descriptions and discussions of several specific examples (e.g., materials evaluation, crack detection, inspection of civil and industrial structures, subsurface detection, and medical applications) A look at emerging techniques and future trends Microwave Imaging is a practical resource for engineers, scientists, researchers, and professors in the fields of civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering.
This book comprehensively describes high-resolution microwave imaging and super-resolution information processing technologies and discusses new theories, methods and achievements in the high-resolution microwave imaging fields. Its chapters, which include abundant research results and examples, systematically summarize the authors’ main research findings in recent years. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates in the fields of electronics systems, signal information processing and data analysis, microwave remote sensing and microwave imaging radar, as well as space technology, especially in the microwave remote sensing and airborne or space-borne microwave imaging radar fields.
This book provides a detailed overview on the use of global optimization and parallel computing in microwave tomography techniques. The book focuses on techniques that are based on global optimization and electromagnetic numerical methods. The authors provide parallelization techniques on homogeneous and heterogeneous computing architectures on high performance and general purpose futuristic computers. The book also discusses the multi-level optimization technique, hybrid genetic algorithm and its application in breast cancer imaging.
This book on the Nondestructive Characterization and Imaging of Wood by Professor Voichita Bucur is truly the most outstanding reference on the subject ever written. Since the origins of mankind, wood has played a key role in the history of humans and other living creatures, ranging from provision of life from trees giving air, heat, light, and food to nourish their bodies to structures to protect them from the elements. Wood has also played a key role in one of the world's primary religions. Nondestructive diagnostics methods have long found application in medi cal practice for examination of the human body in order to detect life threatening abnormalities and permit diagnosis to extend life. Nondestructive testing has been used for many years to insure the safety of machinery, air craft, railroads, tunnels, buildings and many other structures. Therefore, it is timely for a treatise, like the present one, to be written describing how wood can be characterized without employing destructive test methods. Since wood is so valuable to mankind, it is important to know the latest methods to nondestructively characterize wood for all practical applications.
Several developed countries are facing serious problems in medical environments owing to the aging society, and extension of healthy lifetime has become a big challenge. Biomedical engineering, in addition to life sciences and medicine, can help tackle these problems. Innovative technologies concerning minimally invasive treatment, prognosis and early diagnosis, point-of-care testing, regenerative medicine, and personalized medicine need to be developed to realize a healthy aging society. This book presents cutting-edge research in biomedical engineering from materials, devices, imaging, and information perspectives. The contributors are senior members of the Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. All chapters are results of collaborative research in engineering and life sciences and cover nanotechnology, materials, optical sensing technology, imaging technology, image processing technology, and biomechanics, all of which are important areas in biomedical engineering. The book will be a useful resource for researchers, students, and readers who are interested in biomedical engineering.
This book presents ultrawideband antennas and their applications on microwave imaging. The chapters focus on recent techniques, analysis, and applications along with the future vision of this emerging field of applied electromagnetics. Several emerging topics are essayed, including dielectric resonator antennas and planar ultrawideband antennas for microwave imaging. This resource incorporates modern design concepts, analysis, and optimization techniques based on recent developments. Readers are also provided with an extensive overview of current regulations, including those related to microwave effects in biological tissues.