Machines We Trust

Machines We Trust

Author: Marcello Pelillo

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262542098

Category: Computers

Page: 175

View: 894

Experts from disciplines that range from computer science to philosophy consider the challenges of building AI systems that humans can trust. Artificial intelligence-based algorithms now marshal an astonishing range of our daily activities, from driving a car ("turn left in 400 yards") to making a purchase ("products recommended for you"). How can we design AI technologies that humans can trust, especially in such areas of application as law enforcement and the recruitment and hiring process? In this volume, experts from a range of disciplines discuss the ethical and social implications of the proliferation of AI systems, considering bias, transparency, and other issues. The contributors, offering perspectives from computer science, engineering, law, and philosophy, first lay out the terms of the discussion, considering the "ethical debts" of AI systems, the evolution of the AI field, and the problems of trust and trustworthiness in the context of AI. They go on to discuss specific ethical issues and present case studies of such applications as medicine and robotics, inviting us to shift the focus from the perspective of a "human-centered AI" to that of an "AI-decentered humanity." Finally, they consider the future of AI, arguing that, as we move toward a hybrid society of cohabiting humans and machines, AI technologies can become humanity's allies.

In AI We Trust

In AI We Trust

Author: Helga Nowotny

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781509548828

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 835

One of the most persistent concerns about the future is whether it will be dominated by the predictive algorithms of AI – and, if so, what this will mean for our behaviour, for our institutions and for what it means to be human. AI changes our experience of time and the future and challenges our identities, yet we are blinded by its efficiency and fail to understand how it affects us. At the heart of our trust in AI lies a paradox: we leverage AI to increase our control over the future and uncertainty, while at the same time the performativity of AI, the power it has to make us act in the ways it predicts, reduces our agency over the future. This happens when we forget that that we humans have created the digital technologies to which we attribute agency. These developments also challenge the narrative of progress, which played such a central role in modernity and is based on the hubris of total control. We are now moving into an era where this control is limited as AI monitors our actions, posing the threat of surveillance, but also offering the opportunity to reappropriate control and transform it into care. As we try to adjust to a world in which algorithms, robots and avatars play an ever-increasing role, we need to understand better the limitations of AI and how their predictions affect our agency, while at the same time having the courage to embrace the uncertainty of the future.

Performance and Posthumanism

Performance and Posthumanism

Author: Christel Stalpaert

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030747459

Category: Actors

Page: 352

View: 751

Recent technological and scientific developments have demonstrated a condition that has already long been upon us. We have entered a posthuman era, an assertion shared by an increasing number of thinkers such as N. Katherine Hayles, Rosi Braidotti, Donna Haraway, Bruno Latour, Richard Grusin, and Bernard Stiegler. The performing arts have reacted to these developments by increasingly opening up their traditionally human domain to non-human others. Both philosophy and performing arts thus question what it means to be human from a posthumanist point of view and how the agency of non-humans be they technology, objects, animals, or other forms of being works on both an ontological and performative level. The contributions in this volume brings together scholars, dramaturgs, and artists, uniting their reflections on the consequences of the posthuman condition for creative practices, spectatorship, and knowledge.

Unexpected Consequences: Why The Things We Trust Fail

Unexpected Consequences: Why The Things We Trust Fail

Author: James William Martin

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9780313393129

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 555

In this book, interrelationships between more than 40 recent catastrophic events are explored, discussing failures of structures and machines, information technology, regulatory agencies, security designs, and more. • Over 40 case studies • Easy to grasp figures, tables, and templates to help the readers understand the concepts • A glossary of relevant terms • A bibliography

The Theory and Practice of Social Machines

The Theory and Practice of Social Machines

Author: Nigel Shadbolt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030108892

Category: Computers

Page: 260

View: 469

Social machines are a type of network connected by interactive digital devices made possible by the ubiquitous adoption of technologies such as the Internet, the smartphone, social media and the read/write World Wide Web, connecting people at scale to document situations, cooperate on tasks, exchange information, or even simply to play. Existing social processes may be scaled up, and new social processes enabled, to solve problems, augment reality, create new sources of value, and disrupt existing practice. This book considers what talents one would need to understand or build a social machine, describes the state of the art, and speculates on the future, from the perspective of the EPSRC project SOCIAM – The Theory and Practice of Social Machines. The aim is to develop a set of tools and techniques for investigating, constructing and facilitating social machines, to enable us to narrow down pragmatically what is becoming a wide space, by asking ‘when will it be valuable to use these methods on a sociotechnical system?’ The systems for which the use of these methods adds value are social machines in which there is rich person-to-person communication, and where a large proportion of the machine’s behaviour is constituted by human interaction.

Foundations of Trusted Autonomy

Foundations of Trusted Autonomy

Author: Hussein A. Abbass

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319648163

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 395

View: 781

This book establishes the foundations needed to realize the ultimate goals for artificial intelligence, such as autonomy and trustworthiness. Aimed at scientists, researchers, technologists, practitioners, and students, it brings together contributions offering the basics, the challenges and the state-of-the-art on trusted autonomous systems in a single volume. The book is structured in three parts, with chapters written by eminent researchers and outstanding practitioners and users in the field. The first part covers foundational artificial intelligence technologies, while the second part covers philosophical, practical and technological perspectives on trust. Lastly, the third part presents advanced topics necessary to create future trusted autonomous systems. The book augments theory with real-world applications including cyber security, defence and space.

Export of Ball Bearing Machines to Russia

Export of Ball Bearing Machines to Russia

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105024398021

Category: Ball-bearings

Page: 282

View: 336

Bread Machines For Dummies

Bread Machines For Dummies

Author: Glenna Vance

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118069277

Category: Cooking

Page: 244

View: 381

There’s nothing like the smell and taste of fresh homemade bread. But who has the time to make it anymore? You do—with a little help from your automatic bread machine. All bread machines can make good bread; they just need a little help from you to turn out a good loaf. With a little practice and a lot of fun, you too can make freshly baked bread in your kitchen with the touch of a button. Bread Machines For Dummies is for anyone who has ever been frustrated by a bread machine and wants to know if it’s really possible to turn out great bread with a minimum of time and effort (it is!). This fun and easy guide shares simple techniques and more than 85 tested, foolproof recipes for making aromatic and flavorful breads—either for your bread machine or from dough that you shape yourself and bake in the oven. You’ll see how to make: Soft white bread Cracked wheat bread Basic danish dough Babka and C hallah Bread bowls Bread sticks, pizza, and focaccia And so much more! This handy resource guide provides everything you “knead” to know about making bread, including the best ingredients to use, how to work with dough, and how to get the best results out of your machine. Along with plenty of cooking, measuring, and shopping tips, you get expert advice on how to: Shape simple doughs into beautiful breads Mix flours and liquids for perfect bread texture Adapt machine recipes for two loaf sizes Understand the different wheat flours Fit bread into a gluten-free diet Avoid moisture mistakes Make breads with alternative ingredients such as rice flour, potato starch, and tapioca flour Featuring a cheat sheet with standard measuring equivalents and temperature conversions, tips for troubleshooting your machine, and delicious recipes for such tasty delights as Cheddar Cheese Corn Bread, Pecan Sticky Rolls, Cranberry Nut Bread, and Banana Lemon Loaf, Bread Machines For Dummies reveals the best ways to bake, store, and enjoy your bread!

Expertise and Technology

Expertise and Technology

Author: Jean-Michel Hoc

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781134783588

Category: Psychology

Page: 312

View: 182

Technological development has changed the nature of industrial production so that it is no longer a question of humans working with a machine, but rather that a joint human machine system is performing the task. This development, which started in the 1940s, has become even more pronounced with the proliferation of computers and the invasion of digital technology in all wakes of working life. It may appear that the importance of human work has been reduced compared to what can be achieved by intelligent software systems, but in reality, the opposite is true: the more complex a system, the more vital the human operator's task. The conditions have changed, however, whereas people used to be in control of their own tasks, today they have become supervisors of tasks which are shared between humans and machines. A considerable effort has been devoted to the domain of administrative and clerical work and has led to the establishment of an internationally based human-computer interaction (HCI) community at research and application levels. The HCI community, however, has paid more attention to static environments where the human operator is in complete control of the situation, rather than to dynamic environments where changes may occur independent of human intervention and actions. This book's basic philosophy is the conviction that human operators remain the unchallenged experts even in the worst cases where their working conditions have been impoverished by senseless automation. They maintain this advantage due to their ability to learn and build up a high level of expertise -- a foundation of operational knowledge -- during their work. This expertise must be taken into account in the development of efficient human-machine systems, in the specification of training requirements, and in the identification of needs for specific computer support to human actions. Supporting this philosophy, this volume *deals with the main features of cognition in dynamic environments, combining issues coming from empirical approaches of human cognition and cognitive simulation, *addresses the question of the development of competence and expertise, and *proposes ways to take up the main challenge in this domain -- the design of an actual cooperation between human experts and computers of the next century.