The use of laser pulses to alter the internal quantum structure of individual atoms and molecules has applications in quantum information processing, the coherent control of chemical reactions and in quantum-state engineering. This book presents the underlying theory of such quantum-state manipulation for researchers and graduate students. The book provides the equations, and approaches for their solution, which can be applied to complicated multilevel quantum systems. It also gives the background theory for application to isolated atoms or trapped ions, simple molecules and atoms embedded in solids. Particular attention is given to the ways in which quantum changes can be displayed graphically to help readers understand how quantum changes can be controlled.
This work unites the concepts of laser cooling and matter-wave interferometry to develop an interferometric laser cooling technique in an experimental system of cold rubidium atoms. Serving as an introduction to graduate level coherent optical atomic manipulation, the thesis describes the theory of stimulated Raman transitions and atom interferometry, along with the experimental methods for preparing and manipulating cold atoms, before building on these foundations to explore tailored optical pulse sequences and novel atomic cooling techniques. Interferometric cooling, originally proposed by Weitz and Hänsch in 2000, is based upon the coherent broadband laser pulses of Ramsey interferometry and in principle allows laser cooling of atomic and molecular species outside the scope of traditional Doppler laser cooling. On the path toward cooling, composite pulses – quantum error correction methods, developed by chemists to mitigate the effects of in homogeneities in NMR spectroscopy – are investigated with a view to improving the performance of atom interferometers.
This volume of Advances in Chemical Physics is dedicated, by the contributors, to Moshe Shapiro, formerly Canada Research Chair in Quantum Control in the Department of Chemistry at the University of British Columbia and Jacques Mimran Professor of Chemical Physics at the Weizmann Institute, who passed away on December 3, 2013. It focuses primarily on the interaction of light with molecules, one of Moshe’s longstanding scientific loves. However, the wide range of topics covered in this volume constitutes but a small part of Moshe’s vast range of scientific interests, which are well documented in over 300 research publications and two books.
Advances in technology often rely on a world of photons as the basic units of light. Increasingly one reads of photons as essential to enterprises in Photonics and Quantum Technology, with career and investment opportunities. Notions of photons have evolved from the energy-packet crowds of Planck and Einstein, the later field modes of Dirac, the seeming conflict of wave and particle photons, to the ubiquitous laser photons of today. Readers who take interest in contemporary technology will benefit from learning what photons are now considered to be, and how our views of photons have changed — in learning about the various operational definitions that have been used for photons and their association with a variety of quantum-state manipulations that include Quantum Information, astronomical sources and crowds of photons, the boxed fields of Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics and single photons on demand, the photons of Feynman and Glauber, and the photon constituents of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The narrative points to contemporary photons as causers of change to atoms, as carriers of messages, and as subject to controllable creation and alteration — a considerable diversity of photons, not just one kind. Our Changing Views of Photons: A Tutorial Memoir presents those general topics as a memoir of the author's involvement with physics and the photons of theoretical Quantum Optics, written conversationally for readers with no assumed prior exposure to science. It offers lay readers a glimpse of scientific discovery — of how ideas become practical, as a small scientific community reconsiders its assumptions and offers the theoretical ideas that are then developed, revised, and adopted into technology for daily use. For readers who want a more detailed understanding of the theory, three substantial appendices provide tutorials that, assuming no prior familiarity, proceed from a very elementary start to basics of discrete states and abstract vector spaces; Lie groups; notions of quantum theory and the Schrödinger equation for quantum-state manipulation; Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism, with wave modes that become photons, possibly exhibiting quantum entanglement; and the coupling of atoms and fields to create quasiparticles. The appendices can be seen as a companion to traditional textbooks on Quantum Optics.
This book highlights the most recent developments in quantum dot spin physics and the generation of deterministic superior non-classical light states with quantum dots. In particular, it addresses single quantum dot spin manipulation, spin-photon entanglement and the generation of single-photon and entangled photon pair states with nearly ideal properties. The role of semiconductor microcavities, nanophotonic interfaces as well as quantum photonic integrated circuits is emphasized. The latest theoretical and experimental studies of phonon-dressed light matter interaction, single-dot lasing and resonance fluorescence in QD cavity systems are also provided. The book is written by the leading experts in the field.
The central subject of this thesis is the theoretical description of ultrafast dynamical processes in molecular systems of chemical interest and their control by laser pulses. This work encompasses different cutting-edge methods in quantum chemistry, quantum dynamics and for the rigorous description of the interaction of light and matter at the molecular level. It provides a general quantum mechanical framework for the description of chemical processes guided by laser pulses, in particular near conical intersections, i.e. geometries where the nuclear and electronic motions couple and the molecule undergoes non-adiabatic (or non-Born-Oppenheimer) dynamics. In close collaboration with experimentalists, the author succeeds in making a decisive step to link and to apply quantum physics to chemistry by transferring state of the art techniques and concepts developed in physics to chemistry, such as “light dressed atoms and molecules” and “adiabatic Floquet theory”. He applies these techniques in three prototypic model systems (aniline, pyrazine and NHD2) using high-level electronic structure calculations. Readers will enjoy the comprehensive and accessible introduction to the topic and methodology, as well as the clear structure of the thesis.
Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, Volume 67, provides a comprehensive compilation of recent developments in a field that is in a state of rapid growth. Topics covered include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics, with timely articles written by distinguished experts that contain relevant review materials and detailed descriptions of important developments in the field. Presents the work of international experts in the field Contains comprehensive articles that compile recent developments in a field that is experiencing rapid growth, with new experimental and theoretical techniques emerging Ideal for users interested in optics, excitons, plasmas and thermodynamics Topics covered include atmospheric science, astrophysics, and surface and laser physics, amongst others
The dynamics of quantum systems exposed to ultrafast (at the femtosecond time-scale) and strong laser radiation has a highly non-linear character, leading to a number of new phenomena, outside the reach of traditional spectroscopy. The current laser technology makes feasible the probing and control of quantum-scale systems with fields that are as strong as the interatomic Coulombic interactions and time resolution that is equal to (or less than) typical atomic evolution times. It is indispensable that any theoretical description of the induced physical processes should rely on the accurate calculation of the atomic structure and a realistic model of the laser radiation as pulsed fields. This book aims to provide an elementary introduction of theoretical and computational methods and by no means is anywhere near to complete. The selection of the topics as well as the particular viewpoint is best suited for early-stage students and researchers; the included material belongs in the mainstream of theoretical approaches albeit using simpler language without sacrificing mathematical accuracy. Therefore, subjects such as the Hilbert vector-state, density-matrix operators, amplitude equations, Liouville equation, coherent laser radiation, free-electron laser, Dyson-chronological operator, subspace projection, perturbation theory, stochastic density-matrix equations, time-dependent Schrödinger equation, partial-wave analysis, spherical-harmonics expansions, basis and grid wavefunction expansions, ionization, electron kinetic-energy and angular distributions are presented within the context of laser-atom quantum dynamics.
With both industrial and teaching experience, the author explains the effects of time dependence in systems with two energy levels. The book starts with time-independent interactions and goes on to treat interactions with time-dependent electric and magnetic fields. Complete derivations are presented for each case, so the reader understands how the solutions are found. Both closed-form and numerical solutions are treated, and the calculations are compared with experimental data from the literature. Numerous plots are provided to show how the solutions depend on the parameters of the interactions. The book builds upon an undergraduate course in quantum mechanics and is useful for readers interested in magnetic resonance and quantum optics. In addition, this book is ideal for self-study by students or researchers starting on two-level systems. The detailed derivations and plots should ease readers into the study of two-level systems in a wide variety of settings.
This highly interdisciplinary thesis covers a wide range of topics relating to the interface of cold atoms, quantum simulation, quantum magnetism and disorder. With a self-contained presentation, it provides a broad overview of the rapidly evolving area of cold atoms and is of interest to both undergraduates and researchers working in the field. Starting with a general introduction to the physics of cold atoms and optical lattices, it extends the theory to that of systems with different multispecies atoms. It advances the theory of many-body quantum systems in excited bands (of optical lattices) through an extensive study of the properties of both the mean-field and strongly correlated regimes. Particular emphasis is given to the context of quantum simulation, where as shown here, the orbital degree of freedom in excited bands allows the study of exotic models of magnetism not easily achievable with the previous alternative systems. In addition, it proposes a new model Hamiltonian that serves as a quantum simulator of various disordered systems in different symmetry classes that can easily be reproduced experimentally. This is of great interest, especially for the study of disorder in 2D quantum systems.