This monograph considers the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty within the mathematical framework of the Theory of Evidence. With a new perspective on the metrology science, the text paves the way for innovative applications in a wide range of areas. Building on Simona Salicone’s Measurement Uncertainty: An Approach via the Mathematical Theory of Evidence, the material covers further developments of the Random Fuzzy Variable (RFV) approach to uncertainty and provides a more robust mathematical and metrological background to the combination of measurement results that leads to a more effective RFV combination method. While the first part of the book introduces measurement uncertainty, the Theory of Evidence, and fuzzy sets, the following parts bring together these concepts and derive an effective methodology for the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty. A supplementary downloadable program allows the readers to interact with the proposed approach by generating and combining RFVs through custom measurement functions. With numerous examples of applications, this book provides a comprehensive treatment of the RFV approach to uncertainty that is suitable for any graduate student or researcher with interests in the measurement field.
The expression of uncertainty in measurement poses a challenge since it involves physical, mathematical, and philosophical issues. This problem is intensified by the limitations of the probabilistic approach used by the current standard (the GUM Instrumentation Standard). This text presents an alternative approach. It makes full use of the mathematical theory of evidence to express the uncertainty in measurements. Coverage provides an overview of the current standard, then pinpoints and constructively resolves its limitations. Numerous examples throughout help explain the book’s unique approach.
The fourth volume on Advances and Applications of Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) for information fusion collects theoretical and applied contributions of researchers working in different fields of applications and in mathematics. The contributions (see List of Articles published in this book, at the end of the volume) have been published or presented after disseminating the third volume (2009, http://fs.gallup.unm.edu/DSmT-book3.pdf) ininternational conferences, seminars, workshops and journals.
The monitoring and control of a system whose behaviour is highly uncertain is an important and challenging practical problem. Methods of solution based on fuzzy techniques have generated considerable interest, but very little of the existing literature considers explicit ways of taking uncertainties into account. This book describes an approach to the monitoring and control of information-poor systems that is based on fuzzy relational models which generate fuzzy outputs. The first part of Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems aims to clarify why design decisions must take account of the uncertainty associated with optimal choices, and to explain how a fuzzy relational model can be used to generate a fuzzy output, which reflects the uncertainties associated with its predictions. Part two gives a brief introduction to fuzzy decision-making and shows how it can be used to design a predictive control scheme that is suitable for controlling information-poor systems using inaccurate measurements. Part three describes different ways in which fuzzy relational models can be generated online and explains the practical issues associated with their identification and application. The final part of the book provides examples of the use of the previously described techniques in real applications. Key features: Describes techniques applicable to a wide range of engineering, environmental, medical, financial and economic applications Uses simple examples to help explain the basic techniques for dealing with uncertainty Describes a novel design approach based on the use of fuzzy relational models Considers practical issues associated with applying the techniques to real systems Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems forms an invaluable resource for a wide range of graduate students, and is also a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners working on problems involving mathematical modelling and control.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty, ECSQARU 2011, held in Belfast, UK, in June/July 2011. The 60 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 108 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on argumentation; Bayesian networks and causal networks; belief functions; belief revision and inconsistency handling; classification and clustering; default reasoning and logics for reasoning under uncertainty; foundations of reasoning and decision making under uncertainty; fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic; implementation and applications of uncertain systems; possibility theory and possibilistic logic; and uncertainty in databases.
Based on The International Metrology Congress meeting, this reference examines the evolution of metrology, and its applications in industry, environment and safety, health and medicine, economy and quality, and new information and communication technologies; details the improvement of measurement procedures to guarantee the quality of products and processes; and discusses the development of metrology linked to innovating technologies. The themes of the Congress (quality and reliability of measurement, measurement uncertainties, calibration, verification, accreditation, sensory metrology, regulations and legal metrology) are developed either in a general way or applied to a specific economic sector or to a specific scientific field.
Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2014 International Conference on Measurement, Instrumentation and Automation (ICMIA 2014), April 23-24, 2014, Shanghai, China. The 380 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Measurement Science, Methods and Techniques of Measurements, Chapter 2: Signal Acquisition and Data Processing Techniques, Chapter 3: Research and Design of Measurement Instruments, Chapter 4: Sensors Technology, Chapter 5: Image and Video Processing, Chapter 6: Artificial Intelligence, Optimization Algorithms and Computational Mathematics, Chapter 7: Mechatronics and Robotics, Chapter 8: Control and Automation of Industrial Objects, Chapter 9: Electronics, Integrated Systems and Power Electronics, Chapter 10: Communications Technology, Chapter 11: Computer Networks and Security, Chapter 12: Software Development and Application, Chapter 13: Computer and Information Technologies, Chapter 14: Materials, Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing, Chapter 15: Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Chapter 16: Power Engineering, Chapter 17: Transportation, Chapter 18: Biomaterials and Sports Mechanics, Chapter 19: Engineering Education and Engineering Management
This book approaches big data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and business intelligence through the lens of Data Science. We have grown accustomed to seeing these terms mentioned time and time again in the mainstream media. However, our understanding of what they actually mean often remains limited. This book provides a general overview of the terms and approaches used broadly in data science, and provides detailed information on the underlying theories, models, and application scenarios. Divided into three main parts, it addresses what data science is; how and where it is used; and how it can be implemented using modern open source software. The book offers an essential guide to modern data science for all students, practitioners, developers and managers seeking a deeper understanding of how various aspects of data science work, and of how they can be employed to gain a competitive advantage.
Deal with information and uncertainty properly and efficientlyusing tools emerging from generalized information theory Uncertainty and Information: Foundations of Generalized InformationTheory contains comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of resultsthat have emerged from a research program begun by the author inthe early 1990s under the name "generalized information theory"(GIT). This ongoing research program aims to develop a formalmathematical treatment of the interrelated concepts of uncertaintyand information in all their varieties. In GIT, as in classicalinformation theory, uncertainty (predictive, retrodictive,diagnostic, prescriptive, and the like) is viewed as amanifestation of information deficiency, while information isviewed as anything capable of reducing the uncertainty. A broadconceptual framework for GIT is obtained by expanding theformalized language of classical set theory to include moreexpressive formalized languages based on fuzzy sets of varioustypes, and by expanding classical theory of additive measures toinclude more expressive non-additive measures of varioustypes. This landmark book examines each of several theories for dealingwith particular types of uncertainty at the following fourlevels: * Mathematical formalization of the conceived type ofuncertainty * Calculus for manipulating this particular type ofuncertainty * Justifiable ways of measuring the amount of uncertainty in anysituation formalizable in the theory * Methodological aspects of the theory With extensive use of examples and illustrations to clarify complexmaterial and demonstrate practical applications, generoushistorical and bibliographical notes, end-of-chapter exercises totest readers' newfound knowledge, glossaries, and an Instructor'sManual, this is an excellent graduate-level textbook, as well as anoutstanding reference for researchers and practitioners who dealwith the various problems involving uncertainty and information. AnInstructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all theproblems in the book is available from the Wiley editorialdepartment.
Like all natural hazards, flooding is a complex and inherently uncertain phenomenon. Despite advances in developing flood forecasting models and techniques, the uncertainty in forecasts remains unavoidable. This uncertainty needs to be acknowledged, and uncertainty estimation in flood forecasting provides a rational basis for risk-based criteria. This book presents the development and applications of various methods based on probablity and fuzzy set theories for modelling uncertainty in flood forecasting systems. In particular, it presents a methodology for uncertainty assessment using disaggregation of time series inputs in the framework of both the Monte Carlo method and the Fuzzy Extention Principle. It reports an improvement in the First Order Second Moment method, using second degree reconstruction, and derives qualitative scales for the interpretation of qualitative uncertainty. Application is to flood forecasting models for the Klodzko catchment in POland and the Loire River in France. Prospects for the hybrid techniques of uncertainty modelling and probability-possibility transformations are also explored and reported.
Information is precious. It reduces our uncertainty in making decisions. Knowledge about the outcome of an uncertain event gives the possessor an advantage. It changes the course of lives, nations, and history itself. Information is the food of Maxwell's demon. His power comes from know ing which particles are hot and which particles are cold. His existence was paradoxical to classical physics and only the realization that information too was a source of power led to his taming. Information has recently become a commodity, traded and sold like or ange juice or hog bellies. Colleges give degrees in information science and information management. Technology of the computer age has provided access to information in overwhelming quantity. Information has become something worth studying in its own right. The purpose of this volume is to introduce key developments and results in the area of generalized information theory, a theory that deals with uncertainty-based information within mathematical frameworks that are broader than classical set theory and probability theory. The volume is organized as follows.