Microbial Fuel Cells: Electricity Generation From Waste Water

Microbial Fuel Cells: Electricity Generation From Waste Water

Author: Abhilasha Singh Mathuriya

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3659311197

Category:

Page: 532

View: 824

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are electrochemical devices that use metabolic activities of microorganisms to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate electricity. MFC technology is a multidisciplinary approach to the quest for alternate sources of energy. In recent years, MFC technology expressed itself as potential technology for simultaneous electricity generation and waste treatment. It is the purpose of this book to outline, in a concise but comprehensible manner, the fundamentals and development of MFCs and their application as wastewater treatment device. This Book comprises six parts: Chapter 1 contains Introduction and aim of present work. Chapter 2 deals with the critical analysis of MFC research in past and future possibilities. Chapter 3 discloses major methodology used, while Chapter 4 shows the detailed results. Chapter 5 contains conclusion and Chapter 6 is conclusion of present research. As this book is based on results of MFC research, in writing it, the author has drawn about all aspects of MFCs to understand MFCs from every point of view. This book will be beneficial for students, researchers and teachers working on wastewater treatment and bioelectricity.

Development of a Microbial Fuel Cell for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

Development of a Microbial Fuel Cell for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

Author: Nancy G. Love

Publisher: International Water Assn

ISBN: 1843393360

Category: Science

Page: 64

View: 869

Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process that removes contaminants and protects the environment. While some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) recover a small portion of their energy demand through sludge handling processes, most of the useful energy available from wastewater remains unrecovered. Efforts are underway to harness energy from wastewater by developing microbial fuel cells (MiFCs) that generate electricity. Key challenges to the development of microbial fuel cells include inefficiencies inherent in recovering energy from microbial metabolism (particularly carbon metabolism) and ineffective electron transfer processes between the bacteria and the anode. We explored the prospects for constructing microaerobic nitrifying MiFCs which could exhibit key advantages over carbon-based metabolism in particular applications (e.g., potential use in ammonia-rich recycle streams). In addition, we evaluated nanostructure-enhanced anodes which have the potential to facilitate more efficient electron transfer for MiFCs because carbon nanostructures, such as nanofibers, possess outstanding conducting properties and increase the available surface area for cellular attachment. In the initial phase of this project, we investigated the performance of a novel nitrifying MiFC that contains a nanostructure-enhanced anode and that demonstrated power generation during preliminary batch testing. Subsequent batch runs were performed with pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea which demonstrated very low power generation. After validating our fuel cell hardware using abiotic experiments, we proceeded to test the MiFC using a mixed culture from a local wastewater treatment plant, which was enriched for nitrifying bacteria. Again, the power generation was very low though noticeably higher on the nanostructured anodes. After establishing and monitoring the growth of another enriched nitrifying culture, we repeated the experiment a third time, again observing very low power generation. In the absence of appreciable and repeatable power production from pure and mixed nitrifying cultures, we focused on the second major objective of the work which was the fabrication and characterization of carbon nanostructured anodes. The second research objective evaluated whether or not addition of carbon nanostructures to stainless steel anodes in anaerobic microbial fuel cells enhanced electricity generation. The results from the studies focused on this element were very promising and demonstrated that CNS-coated anodes produced up to two orders of magnitude more power in anaerobic microbial fuel cells than in MiFCs with uncoated stainless steel anodes. The largest power density achieved in this study was 506 mW m-2, and the average maximum power density of the CNS-enhanced MiFCs using anaerobic sludge was 300 mW m-2. In comparison, the average maximum power density of the MiFCs with uncoated anodes in the same experiments was only 13.7 mW m-2, an almost 22-fold reduction. Electron microscopy showed that microorganisms were affiliated with the CNS-coated anodes to a much greater degree than the noncoated anodes. Sodium azide inhibition studies showed that active microorganisms were required to achieve enhanced power generation. The current was reduced significantly in MiFCs receiving the inhibitor compared to MiFCs that did not receive the inhibitor. The nature of the microbial-nanostructure relationship that caused enhanced current was not determined during this study but deserves further evaluation. These results are promising and suggest that CNS-enhanced anodes, when coupled with more efficient MiFC designs than were used in this research, may enhance the possibility that MiFC technologies can move to commercial application.

Microbial Fuel Cells

Microbial Fuel Cells

Author: Bruce E. Logan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470258586

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 216

View: 797

The theory, design, construction, and operation of microbial fuel cells Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), devices in which bacteria create electrical power by oxidizing simple compounds such as glucose or complex organic matter in wastewater, represent a new and promising approach for generating power. Not only do MFCs clean wastewater, but they also convert organics in these wastewaters into usable energy. Given the world's limited supply of fossil fuels and fossil fuels' impact on climate change, MFC technology's ability to create renewable, carbon-neutral energy has generated tremendous interest around the world. This timely book is the first dedicated to MFCs. It not only serves as an introduction to the theory underlying the development and functioning of MFCs, it also serves as a manual for ongoing research. In addition, author Bruce Logan, a leading pioneer in MFC research and development, provides practical guidance for the effective design and operation of MFCs based on his own firsthand experience. This reference covers everything you need to fully understand MFCs, including: * Key topics such as voltage and power generation, MFC materials and architecture, mass transfer to bacteria and biofilms, bioreactor design, and fundamentals of electron transfer * Applications across a wide variety of scales, from power generation in the laboratory to approaches for using MFCs for wastewater treatment * The role of MFCs in the climate change debate * Detailed illustrations of bacterial and electrochemical concepts * Charts, graphs, and tables summarizing key design and operation variables * Practice problems and step-by-step examples Microbial Fuel Cells, with its easy-to-follow explanations, is recommended as both a textbook for students and professionals interested in entering the field and as a complete reference for more experienced practitioners.

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

Author: Jung Rae Kim

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039215355

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 84

View: 323

The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.

Integrated Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment

Integrated Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment

Author: Rouzbeh Abbassi

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9780128174944

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 392

View: 425

Current wastewater treatment technologies are not sustainable simply due to their high operational costs and process inefficiency. Integrated Microbial Fuel Cells for Wastewater Treatment is intended for professionals who are searching for an innovative method to improve the efficiencies of wastewater treatment processes by exploiting the potential of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) technology. The book is broadly divided into four sections. It begins with an overview of the "state of the art" bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as well as the fundamentals of MFC technology and its potential to enhance wastewater treatment efficiencies and reduce electricity generation cost. In section two, discusses the integration, installation, and optimization of MFC into conventional wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge process, lagoons, constructed wetlands, and membrane bioreactors. Section three outlines integrations of MFCs into other wastewater processes. The final section provides explorative studies of MFC integrated systems for large scale wastewater treatment and the challenges which are inherent in the upscaling process. Clearly describes the latest techniques for integrating MFC into traditional wastewater treatment processes such as activated sludge process, lagoons, constructed wetlands, and membrane bioreactors Discusses the fundamentals of bioelectrochemical systems for degrading the contaminants from the municipal and industrial wastewater Covers methods for the optimization of integrated systems

Food Industry Wastes

Food Industry Wastes

Author: Maria Kosseva

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123919281

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 338

View: 430

Food Industry Wastes: Assessment and Recuperation of Commodities presents emerging techniques and opportunities for the treatment of food wastes, the reduction of water footprint, and creating sustainable food systems. Written by a team of experts from around the world, this book provides a guide for implementing bioprocessing techniques. It also helps researchers develop new options for the recuperation of these wastes for community benefit. More than 34 million tons of food waste was generated in the United States in 2009, at a cost of approximately $43 billion. And while less than three percent of that waste was recovered and recycled, there is growing interest and development in recovering and recycling food waste. These processes have the potential not only to reduce greenhouse gases, but to provide energy and resources for other purposes. This book examines these topics in detail, starting with sources, characterization and composition of food wastes, and development of green production strategies. The book then turns to treatment techniques such as solid-state fermentation and anaerobic digestion of solid food waste for biogas and fertilizer. A deep section on innovative biocatalysts and bioreactors follows, encompassing hydrogen generation and thermophilic aerobic bioprocessing technologies. Rounding out the volume are extensive sections on water footprints, including electricity generation from microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and life cycle assessments. Food waste is an area of focus for a wide range of related industries from food science to energy and engineering Outlines the development of green product strategies International authoring team represents the leading edge in research and development Highlights leading trends of current research as well as future opportunities for reusing food waste

Microbial Technologies for Wastewater Recycling and Management

Microbial Technologies for Wastewater Recycling and Management

Author: VINEET KUMAR

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000775310

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 381

This book introduces the innovative and emerging microbial technologies for the treatment, recycling, and management of industrial, domestic, and municipal water and other wastewater in an environment-friendly and cost-effective manner. It discusses existing methods and technologies, up-gradation of existing technologies, and new technologies. It also highlights opportunities in the existing technologies along with industrial practices and real-life case studies.

Microbial Electrochemical and Fuel Cells

Microbial Electrochemical and Fuel Cells

Author: Keith Scott

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9781782423966

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 410

View: 630

Microbial Electrochemical and Fuel Cells: Fundamentals and Applications contains the most updated information on bio-electrical systems and their ability to drive an electrical current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature to produce a small amount of power. One of the most promising features of the microbial fuel cell is its application to generate power from wastewater, and its use in the treatment of water to remove contaminants, making it a very sustainable source of power generation that can feasibly find application in rural areas where providing more conventional sources of power is often difficult. The book explores, in detail, both the technical aspects and applications of this technology, and was written by an international team of experts in the field who provide an introduction to microbial fuel cells that looks at their electrochemical principles and mechanisms, explains the materials that can be used for the various sections of the fuel cells, including cathode and anode materials, and provides key analysis of microbial fuel cell performance looking at their usage in hydrogen production, waste treatment, and sensors, amongst other applications. Includes coverage of the types and principles of electrochemical cells Provides information on the construction of fuel cells and appropriate materials Presents the latest on this renewable source of energy and the process for the treatment of waste water

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells

Author: Patit Paban Kundu

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444640185

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 821

Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamentals, working principles, applications and advancements (including commercialization aspects) made in the field of Microbial Fuel Cells research, with critical analyses and opinions from experts around the world. Microbial Fuel cell, as a potential alternative energy harnessing device, has been progressing steadily towards fruitful commercialization. Involvements of electrolyte membranes and catalysts have been two of the most critical factors toward achieving this progress. Added applications of MFCs in areas of bio-hydrogen production and wastewater treatment have made this technology extremely attractive and important. . Reviews and compares MFCs with other alternative energy harnessing devices, particularly in comparison to other fuel cells. Analyses developments of electrolyte membranes, electrodes, catalysts and biocatalysts as critical components of MFCs, responsible for their present and future progress. Includes commercial aspects of MFCs in terms of (i) generation of electricity, (ii) microbial electrolysis cell, (iii) microbial desalination cell, and (iv) wastewater and sludge treatment.

Microbial Fuel Cells

Microbial Fuel Cells

Author: Inamuddin

Publisher: Materials Research Forum LLC

ISBN: 9781644900109

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 364

View: 332

Microbial fuel cells are very promising as renewable energy sources. They are based on the direct conversion of organic or inorganic materials to electricity by utilizing microorganisms as catalysts. These cells are well suited for applications that require only low power, e.g. ultracapacitors, toys, electronic gadgets, meteorological buoys, remote sensors, digital wristwatches, smartphones and hardware in space and robots. In addition to electricity generation, microbial fuel cells can be used for wastewater treatment, desalination and biofuel production. The book addresses characterization techniques and operating conditions of microbial fuel cells, as well as the usefulness of various types of anode and cathode materials.

Waste to Sustainable Energy

Waste to Sustainable Energy

Author: Lakhveer Singh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429828775

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 689

With no emissions and water as a byproduct, the globe could imagine a sustainable and resilient human kind that obliterates any possible chances of future climate change. With increased globalization, there has been an unprecedented escalation in production processes thus generating valued products and byproducts. A significant quantum of the waste materials generated can be transformed into fuels with the help of MFCs. MFC’s utilities would bring about a paradigm shift built on the principles of sustainability, encompassing closed loop biorefinery approach. A MFC’s bio-refinery ensures complete allocation of products and byproducts in various processes yielding zero waste. Such efforts would not only help in managing waste but also contribute to generation of renewable fuel and valued products that fosters sustainable development. To cater to the needs of the present challenges in waste management, bioenergy and bio product recovery and commercial sustainability, this book on MFCs will emphasize and throw light on various mechanisms, routes and reaction engineering approaches for complete transformation of waste to wealth.