The theory, design, construction, and operation of microbial fuel cells Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), devices in which bacteria create electrical power by oxidizing simple compounds such as glucose or complex organic matter in wastewater, represent a new and promising approach for generating power. Not only do MFCs clean wastewater, but they also convert organics in these wastewaters into usable energy. Given the world's limited supply of fossil fuels and fossil fuels' impact on climate change, MFC technology's ability to create renewable, carbon-neutral energy has generated tremendous interest around the world. This timely book is the first dedicated to MFCs. It not only serves as an introduction to the theory underlying the development and functioning of MFCs, it also serves as a manual for ongoing research. In addition, author Bruce Logan, a leading pioneer in MFC research and development, provides practical guidance for the effective design and operation of MFCs based on his own firsthand experience. This reference covers everything you need to fully understand MFCs, including: * Key topics such as voltage and power generation, MFC materials and architecture, mass transfer to bacteria and biofilms, bioreactor design, and fundamentals of electron transfer * Applications across a wide variety of scales, from power generation in the laboratory to approaches for using MFCs for wastewater treatment * The role of MFCs in the climate change debate * Detailed illustrations of bacterial and electrochemical concepts * Charts, graphs, and tables summarizing key design and operation variables * Practice problems and step-by-step examples Microbial Fuel Cells, with its easy-to-follow explanations, is recommended as both a textbook for students and professionals interested in entering the field and as a complete reference for more experienced practitioners.
The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.
In view of the increased consumption of energy due to the proliferation of electronic devices, this book addresses the trends, similarities, differences and advances in fuel cells of both chemical and biological composition. Fundamentals of microbial fuel cells are described, accompanied by details surrounding their uses and limitations. Chapters on electricigens, microbial group investigations and performance, Rumen Fluid microbes and state-of-the-art advances in microbial fuel cell technology are discussed. The book elaborates upon analytical techniques used for biofilm characterization. It also includes chapters on MFC models that include plant-based MFCs, Algal/Fungi MFCs, MDCs and MFCs using animal waste. A critical review on the performance of MFC technology in field trials is offered in an exclusively dedicated section. By addressing one of the most promising sources for clean and renewable energy, this book fills a pressing need to understand a possible solution for meeting the energy demands in our highly advanced technical world.
Faced with the upcoming serious deficiency of energy, food and water, along with inevitable environmental pollution, much related research has been on the upsurge because Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) seem to be one of the solutions to these concerns in the future. The aim of this book is to describe and consider some concepts regarding MFC application designs for interested colleagues. Five topics regarding the technology of flow control, biocatalysts, biofilms, removal of chemical oxygen demand and biochemical fields are addressed in the book. Considering the low power density and short life span of MFCs, there has been a dramatic increase in funding and research that has led to a greater understanding of the fundamental science behind MFC study. This is driving significant improvements in both the reliability and efficiency of MFCs and hence their future use.
This book addresses a range of solutions and effective control techniques for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs), intended as a response to the increased energy consumption and wastewater production stemming from globalization. It describes the fundamentals of MFCs and control-oriented mathematical models, and provides detailed information on uncertain parameters. Various control techniques like robust control with LMI, adaptive backstepping control, and exact linearization control are developed for different mathematical models. In turn, the book elaborates on the basics of adaptive control, presenting several methods in detail. It also demonstrates how MFCs can be developed at the laboratory level, equipping readers to develop their own MFCs for experimental purposes. In closing, it develops a transfer function model for MFCs by combining a system identification technique and model reference adaptive control techniques. By addressing one of the most promising sources of clean and renewable energy, this book provides a viable solution for meeting the world’s increasing energy demands.
Microbial Electrochemical and Fuel Cells: Fundamentals and Applications contains the most updated information on bio-electrical systems and their ability to drive an electrical current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature to produce a small amount of power. One of the most promising features of the microbial fuel cell is its application to generate power from wastewater, and its use in the treatment of water to remove contaminants, making it a very sustainable source of power generation that can feasibly find application in rural areas where providing more conventional sources of power is often difficult. The book explores, in detail, both the technical aspects and applications of this technology, and was written by an international team of experts in the field who provide an introduction to microbial fuel cells that looks at their electrochemical principles and mechanisms, explains the materials that can be used for the various sections of the fuel cells, including cathode and anode materials, and provides key analysis of microbial fuel cell performance looking at their usage in hydrogen production, waste treatment, and sensors, amongst other applications. Includes coverage of the types and principles of electrochemical cells Provides information on the construction of fuel cells and appropriate materials Presents the latest on this renewable source of energy and the process for the treatment of waste water
This book represents a novel attempt to describe microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as a renewable energy source derived from organic wastes. Bioelectricity is usually produced through MFCs in oxygen-deficient environments, where a series of microorganisms convert the complex wastes into electrons via liquefaction through a cascade of enzymes in a bioelectrochemical process. The book provides a detailed description of MFC technologies and their applications, along with the theories underlying the electron transfer mechanisms, the biochemistry and the microbiology involved, and the material characteristics of the anode, cathode and separator. It is intended for a broad audience, mainly undergraduates, postgraduates, energy researchers, scientists working in industry and at research organizations, energy specialists, policymakers, and anyone else interested in the latest developments concerning MFCs.
This book comprehensively reviews the key topics in microbial fuel cells (MFC) and its applications in areas related to energy and environmental mitigation. It covers the microbial electrochemistry and the generation of electricity from waste, various synthesis and characterization approaches of polymer-based MFC electrodes, the multifunctional properties of a MFC which allows its simultaneous use as a fuel cell, bioremediation and biosensor device. It provides new direction to the readers to better understand the chemistry in MFC and methods to improve their desired properties. This book is a very valuable reference source for graduates and postgraduates, engineers and research scholars in the areas related to fuel cells electrochemistry and pollution mitigation.
Progress and Recent Trends in Microbial Fuel Cells provides an in-depth analysis of the fundamentals, working principles, applications and advancements (including commercialization aspects) made in the field of Microbial Fuel Cells research, with critical analyses and opinions from experts around the world. Microbial Fuel cell, as a potential alternative energy harnessing device, has been progressing steadily towards fruitful commercialization. Involvements of electrolyte membranes and catalysts have been two of the most critical factors toward achieving this progress. Added applications of MFCs in areas of bio-hydrogen production and wastewater treatment have made this technology extremely attractive and important. . Reviews and compares MFCs with other alternative energy harnessing devices, particularly in comparison to other fuel cells. Analyses developments of electrolyte membranes, electrodes, catalysts and biocatalysts as critical components of MFCs, responsible for their present and future progress. Includes commercial aspects of MFCs in terms of (i) generation of electricity, (ii) microbial electrolysis cell, (iii) microbial desalination cell, and (iv) wastewater and sludge treatment.
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are electrochemical devices that use metabolic activities of microorganisms to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate electricity. MFC technology is a multidisciplinary approach to the quest for alternate sources of energy. In recent years, MFC technology expressed itself as potential technology for simultaneous electricity generation and waste treatment. It is the purpose of this book to outline, in a concise but comprehensible manner, the fundamentals and development of MFCs and their application as wastewater treatment device. This Book comprises six parts: Chapter 1 contains Introduction and aim of present work. Chapter 2 deals with the critical analysis of MFC research in past and future possibilities. Chapter 3 discloses major methodology used, while Chapter 4 shows the detailed results. Chapter 5 contains conclusion and Chapter 6 is conclusion of present research. As this book is based on results of MFC research, in writing it, the author has drawn about all aspects of MFCs to understand MFCs from every point of view. This book will be beneficial for students, researchers and teachers working on wastewater treatment and bioelectricity.
In the context of wastewater treatment, Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs) have gained considerable interest in the past few years, and several BES processes are on the brink of application to this area. This book, written by a large number of world experts in the different sub-topics, describes the different aspects and processes relevant to their development. Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs) use micro-organisms to catalyze an oxidation and/or reduction reaction at an anodic and cathodic electrode respectively. Briefly, at an anode oxidation of organic and inorganic electron donors can occur. Prime examples of such electron donors are waste organics and sulfides. At the cathode, an electron acceptor such as oxygen or nitrate can be reduced. The anode and the cathode are connected through an electrical circuit. If electrical power is harvested from this circuit, the system is called a Microbial Fuel Cell; if electrical power is invested, the system is called a Microbial Electrolysis Cell. The overall framework of bio-energy and bio-fuels is discussed. A number of chapters discuss the basics – microbiology, microbial ecology, electrochemistry, technology and materials development. The book continues by highlighting the plurality of processes based on BES technology already in existence, going from wastewater based reactors to sediment based bio-batteries. The integration of BESs into existing water or process lines is discussed. Finally, an outlook is provided of how BES will fit within the emerging biorefinery area.
Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process that removes contaminants and protects the environment. While some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) recover a small portion of their energy demand through sludge handling processes, most of the useful energy available from wastewater remains unrecovered. Efforts are underway to harness energy from wastewater by developing microbial fuel cells (MiFCs) that generate electricity. Key challenges to the development of microbial fuel cells include inefficiencies inherent in recovering energy from microbial metabolism (particularly carbon metabolism) and ineffective electron transfer processes between the bacteria and the anode. We explored the prospects for constructing microaerobic nitrifying MiFCs which could exhibit key advantages over carbon-based metabolism in particular applications (e.g., potential use in ammonia-rich recycle streams). In addition, we evaluated nanostructure-enhanced anodes which have the potential to facilitate more efficient electron transfer for MiFCs because carbon nanostructures, such as nanofibers, possess outstanding conducting properties and increase the available surface area for cellular attachment. In the initial phase of this project, we investigated the performance of a novel nitrifying MiFC that contains a nanostructure-enhanced anode and that demonstrated power generation during preliminary batch testing. Subsequent batch runs were performed with pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea which demonstrated very low power generation. After validating our fuel cell hardware using abiotic experiments, we proceeded to test the MiFC using a mixed culture from a local wastewater treatment plant, which was enriched for nitrifying bacteria. Again, the power generation was very low though noticeably higher on the nanostructured anodes. After establishing and monitoring the growth of another enriched nitrifying culture, we repeated the experiment a third time, again observing very low power generation. In the absence of appreciable and repeatable power production from pure and mixed nitrifying cultures, we focused on the second major objective of the work which was the fabrication and characterization of carbon nanostructured anodes. The second research objective evaluated whether or not addition of carbon nanostructures to stainless steel anodes in anaerobic microbial fuel cells enhanced electricity generation. The results from the studies focused on this element were very promising and demonstrated that CNS-coated anodes produced up to two orders of magnitude more power in anaerobic microbial fuel cells than in MiFCs with uncoated stainless steel anodes. The largest power density achieved in this study was 506 mW m-2, and the average maximum power density of the CNS-enhanced MiFCs using anaerobic sludge was 300 mW m-2. In comparison, the average maximum power density of the MiFCs with uncoated anodes in the same experiments was only 13.7 mW m-2, an almost 22-fold reduction. Electron microscopy showed that microorganisms were affiliated with the CNS-coated anodes to a much greater degree than the noncoated anodes. Sodium azide inhibition studies showed that active microorganisms were required to achieve enhanced power generation. The current was reduced significantly in MiFCs receiving the inhibitor compared to MiFCs that did not receive the inhibitor. The nature of the microbial-nanostructure relationship that caused enhanced current was not determined during this study but deserves further evaluation. These results are promising and suggest that CNS-enhanced anodes, when coupled with more efficient MiFC designs than were used in this research, may enhance the possibility that MiFC technologies can move to commercial application.