This books studies syntax of NPIs and their interaction with sentential negatives in Hindi. It outlines the clause structure of Hindi and locates the syntactic position of sentential negatives as well as constituent negatives within the structure. It is argued that sentential negative in Hindi negation marker heads its own maximal projection, NegP, which is immediately dominated by TP. In addition to locating the position of negation markers in the clause structure, it outlines the distribution of negative polarity items (NPIs) in Hindi and the structural constraints on their licensing by sentential negative. The book argues that an NPI in Hindi is licensed overtly in the course of derivation by a c-commanding negative marker. The bulk of the evidence presented in this book argues against previous theoretical accounts that claim that NPI licensing involves covert syntactic operations such as LF movement or reconstruction. With respect to the classification of NPIs , this book also shows the existence of two different types of NPIs in Hindi; namely, strong NPIs and weak NPIs. Strong NPIs require a clause mate c-commanding negative licensor, whereas weak NPIs are quantifiers and are similar to free choice 'any' in English that are interpreted as NPIs in the presence of a c-commanding negative licensor.
Negation ist eine universelle Eigenschaft der menschlichen Sprache. Als primäre Disziplin der Logik tritt Negation in typologisch unterschiedlichsten Erscheinungsformen auf und spielt eine große Rolle für die Syntax-Semantik-Schnittstelle. Mit diesem Band soll die umfassende Forschungsliteratur zur Negation durch eine Reihe von aktuellen Studien ergänzt werden. Alle Beiträge beziehen sich auf Fragen oder Kontroversen, die sich mit der Syntax, Semantik und Variation negativer Elemente befassen, und gehen von der Annahme aus, dass ein grundlegendes Verständnis der verschiedenen Realisierungen der Negation zentral für unser Grammatikverständnis ist. Die hier veröffentlichten Beiträge berücksichtigen verschiedene Herangehensweisen und eine Vielfalt empirischer und analytischer Details. Negation is a universal feature of human language that is inherently logical in nature, presents typologically diverse manifestations, and plays a fundamental role in the mapping between syntactic structure and semantic interpretation. The aim of this volume is to complement the vast body of research literature by offering a set of cutting-edge studies on negation. All the contributions are related to recent questions bearing on the syntax and semantics of negative elements and the variation in their form, and follow the central assumption that a proper understanding of the multifaceted expression of negation is central to our understanding of the grammar as a whole. With this in mind, different approaches and a variety of empirical and analytic details have been included in this volume.
The central concern of this title, first published in 1994, is the syntactic nature of negation in Universal Grammar, and its relation to other functional elements in the Syntax. The study argues that negation is not a syntactic category on its own; rather, it is one of the values of a more abstract syntactic category, named Σ, which includes other sentence operators, such as affirmation and emphasis. This title will be of interest to students of language and linguistics.
Perspectives on Negation and Polarity Items contains a selection of papers on the semantics, acquisition and licensing behavior of negation. Negation, being one of the prevalent features of any human language, has many facets of interest to linguists, psychologists and philosophers alike. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the complicated distributional patterns of polarity items. Many of the contributions in this volume are devoted to the study of one or more of these items in langages such as English (Laurence Horn, Anita Mittwoch, Chris Kennedy), Dutch (Jack Hoeksema and Hotze Rullmann, Henny Klein, Gertjan Postma), German (Gabriel Falkenberg), Hindi (Utpal Lahiri) and Greek (Anastasia Giannakidou). In addition, some general issues surrounding negation are addressed, such as the characterization of the notion “strength of negation” (Jay Atlas), the problem of NEG-raising (Lucia Tovena), the interaction of negation and modality (Johan van der Auwera) and the acquisition of negation (Kenneth Drozd).
This book provides a thorough investigation of the expression of sentential negation in the history of Greek. It draws on both quantitative data from texts dating from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, and Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from all stages of the language, from Homeric Greek to Standard Modern Greek. Katerina Chatzopoulou accounts for the contrast between the two complementary negators found in Greek, referred to as a NEG1 and NEG2, in terms of the latter's sensitivity to nonveridicality, and explains the asymmetry observed in the diachronic development of the Greek negator system. The volume also sets out a new interpretation of Jespersen's cycle, which abstracts away from the morphosyntactic and phonological properties of the phenomenon and proposes instead that it is best understood in semantic terms. This approach not only explains the patterns observed in Greek, but also those found in other languages that deviate from the traditional description of Jespersen's cycle.
Human thought and action is fundamentally shaped by a small set of cognitive categories, such as time, space, causality, or possession. It is not surprising, therefore, that all natural languages have developed many devices to express these categories. Temporality, for example, is reflected in the lexical meaning of verbs, in grammatical marking of tense and aspect, in time adverbials, in special particles, and in the application of discourse principles. Many of these devices have been the subject of intensive research across languages; but as a rule, this research focuses on particular aspects, it does not look at the expression of such a category as a whole. Precisely this is the aim of the present series. The short volumes will bring together what is known about the expression of a particular category in human language. The series THE EXPRESSION OF COGNITIVE CATEGORIES is edited by WOLFGANG KLEIN and STEPHEN LEVINSON, Max-Planck-Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen (The Netherlands). Negation is a core feature of human language, a precondition for contradiction, denial, irony, and lies. This book surveys the form and function of negative sentence, providing state-of-the-art studies and a comprehensive bibliography on the acquisition, processing, and historical development of negation and its interaction with other operators. the chapters explore polarity, "illogical" negation, and the grammatical semantic, and pragmatic factors in cross-linguistic expression of negation.
The syntactic component of the faculty of language is argued to be a rewiring of a few independently motivated components: features, the conjunction of a successive operation of union-formation ('Merge') and of derivational records ('nests'), and principles of analysis. Since nests linearize terminals (Kuratowski 1921), Kayne's (1994) LCA becomes dispensable. The study of how features are ordered in discontinuous, analytic and syncretic patterns, governed by the Full Interpretation Condition and the Maximize Matching Effects Principle, provides a simple account for several syntactic phenomena, like the C-Infl connection, certain cartographic observations due to Cinque (1999), the A'-status of preverbal subjects in Null Subject Languages (Solà 1992), the alleviation of wh-island effects in English when the embedded wh-phrase is a subject (Chomsky 1986) and the dynamic V2 patterns in double agreement dialects observed by Zwart (1993). The possibility that Comp-trace effects derive from the contraction of the C-Infl discontinuity is explored and subject islands and wh-islands are derived from the Relativized Opacity Principle, an alternative to Chomsky's PIC.
This monograph presents a morpho-syntactic investigation on modality, aspect, and negation by concentrating on Persian, and is designed to contribute to theoretical linguistics and the study of Iranian languages. The analysis is based on the Minimalist program. This research challenges the idea that the syntactic structure maps on the semantic interpretation or vice versa. The discussion presented in this monograph shows that the syntactic structure of Persian modals is uniform no matter if the modals are interpreted as having root or epistemic readings. Although it is claimed that modals are raising constructions in different languages, modals in Persian, which does not have subject-raising constructions, show a different syntactic behavior. Furthermore, the structural analysis of the interaction of Persian modals and negation shows that because of the scope interaction of negation and modals, the syntactic structure of modals with respect to negation mostly corresponds to the semantic interpretation of modals.
This book contains eleven carefully selected papers, all discussing negative constructions in English. The aim of this volume is to bring together empirical research into the development of English negation and analyses of syntactic variations in Present-day English negation. The first part "Aspects of Negation in the History of English" includes six contributions, that focus on the usages of the negative adverbs ne and not, the decline of negative concord, and the development of the auxiliary do in negation. Most of the themes discussed here are then linked to the second part "Aspects of Negation in Present-day English". Especially, the issue of negative concord is repeatedly explored by three of the five papers in this part, one related to British English dialects in general, another to Tyneside English, and the other to African American Vernacular English. This book uniquely highlights the importance of continuity from Old English to Present-day English, while, in its introduction, it provides a useful detailed survey of previous studies on English negation.