Winding

Winding

Author: James K. Good

Publisher: DEStech Publications, Inc

ISBN: 9781932078695

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 430

View: 141

This new book, by two of the world's foremost experts, is the definitive guide to how winding machines work and how wound rolls are formed. It covers a wide array of machines in use across all web industries, including paper, film, foil, nonwovens, textiles, and more. It sets the standard for understanding and applying quality control in the field. Using hundreds of proven calculations, the book enables readers to understand and make the adjustments necessary to prevent roll defects and improve product quality. Dozens of examples and hands-on applications illustrate key techniques. Most of the book, especially the last section on measurement, is written in everyday language accessible to all responsible for machine operation and roll quality—from engineers to shop floor managers.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface About This Book and CD-ROM Section I—MACHINES 1. Zen and the Art of Winding · The TNT's of Winding · Winder Classes · Limits on Tension, Nip and Torque Differential · The Effect of Class on Range of Wound Roll Tightness · What is Tightness? · How Does Winding Being a One-Knob Process Affect Winding Strategy? · What Class is Best and How Many Knobs Do I Need? · What About Taper or Roll Structure? · How Do You Set Taper? · A Few Words About Optimization—What is the Best Tension? · Bibliography 2. Some Winding Defects · DFM Applied to Winding · Getting Started · What is a Defect? · Blocking · Core—Crushed · Core—Loose · Corrugations or Ropes · Curl · Gauge Bands or Ridges · Hardness Variations Across a Roll · Nip Induced Defects · Offsets and Rough Roll Edges · Out-of-Round Roll · Starring and Related Defects · Telescoping · A Note on Oscillation · Summary · Bibliography 3. Winder Arrangements · Selecting a Winder · Salvage Winders · Turret Winders · Reels · Duplex Winders · Two Drum Winders · Grooving, Traction Coated and Rubber Covered Drums · Gap Winders · Bigger is Better for Drums, Spools, Cores and Rollers · Supporting Large Rolls on Drums · Summary · Bibliography 4. Roll Geometry and Properties · Roll Diameter · Roll Length · Resolving Roll Length Discrepancies · Roll Width · Wound Roll Offsets and Rough Edges · Telescoping and Dishing · Roll Weight and Density · Some Useful Roll Conversion Formulas · Bibliography Section II—MECHANICS 5. Simple Material Properties · Basis Weight · Caliper · Caliper Profile—A Very Important Note · Density or Bulk · Other Web Material Properties of Winding Interest · Other Roll Properties of Winding Interest · The Fiber Core—The Foundation of Most Wound Rolls · Bibliography 6. Introduction to Wound Roll Modeling · Stresses in a Wound Roll · Anisotropy and Principal Axes · MD or Tangential Modulus · ZD or Radial Modulus · In-Plane Poisson Ratio · Poisson Ratios for Winding Models · Basic Equations of Winding Models · Winding Equation · Core Modulus Ec—The Inner Boundary Condition · Winding Tightness—The Outer Boundary Condition · Bibliography 7. Simple 1-D Models · Early Models 1950-1985 · Hakiel's Models—1986 · Early Complex Models · Early Experimental Verification · The Hakiel Formulation · Spongy and Fully Compressed Behavior · Constant Tension versus Constant Torque · Large Deformations · Plane Strain versus Plane Stress Winding Models · Bibliography 8. 2-D Models and Gauge Variation · Measuring Gauge Profile · Early Models of the Effects of Gauge Variation · True 2-D Models of the Effects of Gauge Variation · Summary of the Effects of Gauge Variation · Bibliography 9. The Effect of Nip on Wound Roll Stresses · Classes of Winders · What is WOT? · Early Experimental Evidence of WOT · Early Models for WOT · Comparative Study of Different Models for WOT · WOT on Two Drum Winders · Summary of Findings · Bibliography 10. The Effects of Air Entrainment · Air Entrainment Between Webs and Rollers · When Is Air Important Between Permeable Webs and Rollers/Wound Rolls? · Some Practical Observations on Entrained Air · Air Entrainment on Centerwinders · An Introduction to Nip Rollers on Winders · Modeling Air Exclusion by a Nip Roller · Exhaust of Air Entrained From the Edges of a Wound Roll · The Effect of Air Entrainment on Wound Roll Stresses · Effect of Air Exhaust on Wound Roll Stresses · Summary · Bibliography 11. The Effects of Moisture and Temperature · Time Constants for Movement of Moisture/Temperature in a Wound Roll · Moisture/Temperature Profiles of a Wound Roll · Thermoelastic Behavior in Wound Rolls · Hygroscopic Behavior in Wound Rolls · Bibliography 12. Viscoelastic Behavior · Creep and Stress Relaxation · Viscoelastic Behavior · Bibliography 13. Defects Predicted by Winding Models · Pressure Related Defects · Bursts, Baggy Lanes, Ridges and Hardstreaks · Modeling of Simple Slippage Related Defects · Telescoping · Crepe Wrinkles · Starring · Tin-Canning · Core Collapse · Loose Cores and Core Stiffness · Bibliography 14. Dynamic Behavior at High Speeds · Centrifugal Effects · Vibration · Bibliography Section III—MEASUREMENT 15. Wound Roll Sampling and Inspection · Why Measure? · Measurement Methods · Methodology · Sampling · Interchangeability of Measurements · Bibliography 16. Measures of Roll Hardness · Billy Club and its Variants · RhoMeter and RhoHammer · Backtender's Friend · Schmidt (Concrete) Hammer · Parotester · TAPIO RQP · Bibliography 17. Measurements of Interlayer Pressure · Pull Tab · Smith Needle · Core Torque · Axial Press Test · Pressure Transducers · Caliper In-Roll · Acoustic Time-of-Flight · Bibliography 18. Measurements Based on Strain · Cameron Gap · J-Line · Radially Drilled Holes · Slit Roll Face · Strain Gages · WIT-WOT · Bibliography Appendix D—Dictionary 19. Density Based Measures · Air In Roll · Roll Density · Density Analyzer—History · Density Analyzer —Construction · Density Analyzer—Theory of Operation · Analysis of the Density Analyzer · Bibliography 20. Other Wound Roll Measures · Profile · Bubbleometer · X-Ray Tomography · Bibliography 21. Wound Roll Measurement Considerations · Is my Web Good?—Sampling Across the Width of the Roll · Is my Roll or my Winder Good?—Sampling Through the Roll · Is It the Winder's Fault? · Is my Measurement Good?—Testing the Test Appendix A—Units and Conversions Appendix B—Selected Bibliography Appendix C—Selected Calculations

Rotating Machinery Vibration

Rotating Machinery Vibration

Author: Maurice L. Adams

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439847558

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 478

View: 919

Diagnosis and correction are critical tasks for the vibrations engineer. Many causes of rotor vibration are so subtle and pervasive that excessive vibration continues to occur despite the use of usually effective design practices and methods of avoidance. Rotating Machinery Vibration: From Analysis to Troubleshooting provides a comprehensive, consolidated overview of the fundamentals of rotating machinery vibration and addresses computer model building, sources and types of vibration, and machine vibration signal analysis. This reference is a powerful tool to strengthen vital in-house competency on the subject for professionals in a variety of fields. After presenting governing fundamental principles and background on modern measurement, computational tools, and troubleshooting methods, the author provides practical instruction and demonstration on how to diagnose vibration problems and formulate solutions. The topic is covered in four sequential sections: Primer on Rotor Vibration, Use of Rotor Dynamic Analyses, Monitoring and Diagnostics, and Troubleshooting Case Studies. This book includes comprehensive descriptions of vibration symptoms for rotor unbalance, dynamic instability, rotor-stator rubs, misalignment, loose parts, cracked shafts, and rub-induced thermal bows. It is an essential reference for mechanical, chemical, design, manufacturing, materials, aerospace, and reliability engineers. Particularly useful as a reference for specialists in vibration, rotating machinery, and turbomachinery, it also makes an ideal text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.

Fluid-Solid Interaction Dynamics

Fluid-Solid Interaction Dynamics

Author: Jing Tang Xing

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128193532

Category: Science

Page: 680

View: 752

Fluid-Solid Interaction Dynamics: Theory, Variational Principles, Numerical Methods and Applications gives a comprehensive accounting of fluid-solid interaction dynamics, including theory, numerical methods and their solutions for various FSI problems in engineering. The title provides the fundamental theories, methodologies and results developed in the application of FSI dynamics. Four numerical approaches that can be used with almost all integrated FSI systems in engineering are presented. Methods are linked with examples to illustrate results. In addition, numerical results are compared with available experiments or numerical data in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the approaches and their value to engineering applications. The title gives readers the state-of-the-art in theory, variational principles, numerical modeling and applications for fluid-solid interaction dynamics. Readers will be able to independently formulate models to solve their engineering FSI problems using information from this book. Presents the state-of-the-art in fluid-solid interaction dynamics, providing theory, method and results Takes an integrated approach to formulate, model and simulate FSI problems in engineering Illustrates results with concrete examples Gives four numerical approaches and related theories that are suitable for almost all integrated FSI systems Provides the necessary information for bench scientists to independently formulate, model, and solve physical FSI problems in engineering

Mechanics IUTAM USNC/TAM

Mechanics IUTAM USNC/TAM

Author: Carl T. Herakovich

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319323121

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 231

View: 454

This book provides a detailed history of the United States National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (USNC/TAM) of the US National Academies, the relationship between the USNC/TAM and IUTAM, and a review of the many mechanicians who developed the field over time. It emphasizes the birth and growth of USNC/TAM, the birth and growth of the larger International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM), and explores the work of mechanics from Aristotle to the present. Written by the former Secretary of USNC/TAM, Dr. Carl T. Herakovich of the University of Virginia, the book profiles luminaries of mechanics including Galileo, Newton, Bernoulli, Euler, Cauchy, Prandtl, Einstein, von Kármán, Timoshenko, and in so doing provides insight into centuries of scientific and technologic advance.