This new edition of the classic text by Aki and Richards has at last been updated throughout to systematically explain key concepts in seismology. Now in one volume, the book provides a unified treatment of seismological methods that will be of use to advanced students, seismologists, and scientists and engineers working in all areas of seismology.

This book seeks to explore seismic phenomena in elastic media and emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning. The purpose of this title - which is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as scientists interested in quantitative seismology - is to use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to describe phenomena resulting from the propagation of waves. The book is divided into three parts: Elastic continua, Waves and rays, and Variational formulation of rays. In Part I, continuum mechanics are used to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such material. In Part II, these equations are used to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, the high-frequency approximation is used and establishes the concept of a ray. In Part III, it is shown that in elastic continua a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary travel time.

Introduction to Computational Earthquake Engineering covers solid continuum mechanics, finite element method and stochastic modeling comprehensively, with the second and third chapters explaining the numerical simulation of strong ground motion and faulting, respectively. Stochastic modeling is used for uncertain underground structures, and advanced analytical methods for linear and non-linear stochastic models are presented. The verification of these methods by comparing the simulation results with observed data is then presented, and examples of numerical simulations which apply these methods to practical problems are generously provided. Furthermore three advanced topics of computational earthquake engineering are covered, detailing examples of applying computational science technology to earthquake engineering problems. Contents:Preliminaries:Solid Continuum MechanicFinite Element MethodStochastic ModelingStrong Ground Motion:The Wave Equation for SolidsAnalysis of Strong Ground MotionSimulation of Strong Ground MotionFaulting:Elasto-Plasticity and Fracture MechanicsAnalysis of FaultingSimulation of FaultingBEM Simulation of FaultingAdvanced Topics:Integrated Earthquake SimulationUnified Visualisation of Earthquake SimulationStandardisation of Earthquake Resistant DesignMulti-Agent Simulation for Evacuation Process AnalysisAppendices:Earthquake MechanismsAnalytical MechanicsNumerical Techniques for Solving Wave EquationUnified Modeling Language Readership: Academic and industry: engineers, students; advanced undergraduates in the field of earthquake engineering. Keywords:Earthquake Engineering;Computational Mechanics;Structural Analysis;Wave Propagation;Elasto-Plastic Analysis;Fracture Analysis; Stochastic ModelingKey Features:Detailed explanation is given to modeling of uncertain ground structures; stochastic modeling which treats the uncertainty in a stochastic manner is usedSeveral key numerical algorithms and techniques are explained in solving large-scale, non-linear and dynamic problemsApplication of these methods to simulate actual strong ground motion and faulting is presented

The author dedicates this book to readers who are concerned with finding out the status of concepts, statements and hypotheses, and with clarifying and rearranging them in a logical order. It is thus not intended to teach tools and techniques of the trade, but to discuss the foundations on which seismology -- and in a larger sense, the theory of wave propagation in solids -- is built. A key question is: why and to what degree can a theory developed for an elastic continuum be used to investigate the propagation of waves in the Earth, which is neither a continuum nor fully elastic. But the scrutiny of the foundations goes much deeper: material symmetry, effective tensors, equivalent media; the influence (or, rather, the lack thereof) of gravitational and thermal effects and the rotation of the Earth, are discussed ab initio. The variational principles of Fermat and Hamilton and their consequences for the propagation of elastic waves, causality, Noether's theorem and its consequences on conservation of energy and conservation of linear momentum are but a few topics that are investigated in the process to establish seismology as a science and to investigate its relation to subjects like realism and empiricism in natural sciences, to the nature of explanations and predictions, and to experimental verification and refutation. In the second edition, new sections, figures, examples, exercises and remarks are added. Most importantly, however, four new appendices of about one-hundred pages are included, which can serve as a self-contained continuum-mechanics course on finite elasticity. Also, they broaden the scope of elasticity theory commonly considered in seismology. Contents: Science of Seismology Seismology and Continuum Mechanics Hookean Solid: Material Symmetry Hookean Solid: Effective Symmetry and Equivalent Medium Body Waves Surface, Guided and Interface Waves Variational Principles in Seismology Gravitational and Thermal Effects in Seismology Seismology as Science Appendices: On Strains On Stresses On Thermoelasticity On Hyperelasticity On Covariant and Contravariant Transformations On Covariant Derivatives List of Symbols Readership: Students, professionals, researchers, and laypersons interested in seismology. Keywords: Elasticity Theory;Inverse Problems;Seismology;Continuum Mechanics;Mathematical PhysicsReview: "This one-of-a-kind book is refreshing in its presentation of an amazing blend of fundamental scientific and philosophical questions with their practical implications to concrete examples in Seismology. It is refined in its style, in the sophistication of its quotes, in the breadth of its sources and in the many details that reveal a labour of love. As an additional bonus, the book is also extremely useful. It presents the underlying theory of the relevant aspects of Continuum Mechanics in a clear and sufficiently rigorous way, while challenging the reader's intellect at every step of the way ... This inspiring book is highly recommended." Professor Marcelo Epstein University of Calgary, Canada "This book provides an extensive and self-contained treatment of the mathematical theory of wave propagation in elastic continua, with special attention to topics, some of them well advanced, which are most important for their applications in geophysics ... The author's wide culture, clear style and rigorous approach make this book a first foundation stone of a field which should be called Rational Seismology." Professor Maurizio Vianello Politecnico di Milano, Italy 0

Introduction to Petroleum Seismology, second edition (SEG Investigations in Geophysics Series No. 12) provides the theoretical and practical foundation for tackling present and future challenges of petroleum seismology especially those related to seismic survey designs, seismic data acquisition, seismic and EM modeling, seismic imaging, microseismicity, and reservoir characterization and monitoring. All of the chapters from the first edition have been improved and/or expanded. In addition, twelve new chapters have been added. These new chapters expand topics which were only alluded to in the first edition: sparsity representation, sparsity and nonlinear optimization, near-simultaneous multiple-shooting acquisition and processing, nonuniform wavefield sampling, automated modeling, elastic-electromagnetic mathematical equivalences, and microseismicity in the context of hydraulic fracturing. Another major modification in this edition is that each chapter contains analytical problems as well as computational problems. These problems include MatLab codes, which may help readers improve their understanding of and intuition about these materials. The comprehensiveness of this book makes it a suitable text for undergraduate and graduate courses that target geophysicists and engineers as well as a guide and reference work for researchers and professionals in academia and in the petroleum industry.

Seismic waves - generated both by natural earthquakes and by man-made sources - have produced an enormous amount of information about the Earth's interior. In classical seismology, the Earth is modeled as a sequence of uniform horizontal layers (or spherical shells) having different elastic properties and one determines these properties from travel times and dispersion of seismic waves. The Earth, however, is not made of horizontally uniform layers, and classic seismic methods can take large-scale inhomogeneities into account. Smaller-scale irregularities, on the other hand, require other methods. Observations of continuous wave trains that follow classic direct S waves, known as coda waves, have shown that there are heterogeneities of random size scattered randomly throughout the layers of the classic seismic model. This book focuses on recent developments in the area of seismic wave propagation and scattering through the randomly heterogeneous structure of the Earth, with emphasis on the lithosphere. The presentation combines information from many sources to present a coherent introduction to the theory of scattering in acoustic and elastic materials and includes analyses of observations using the theoretical methods developed. The second edition especially includes new observational facts such as the spatial variation of medium inhomogeneities and the temporal change in scattering characteristics and recent theoretical developments in the envelope synthesis in random media for the last ten years. Mathematics is thoroughly rewritten for improving the readability. Written for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students of geophysics or planetary sciences, this book should also be of interest to civil engineers, seismologists, acoustical engineers, and others interested in wave propagation through inhomogeneous elastic media.

The present book — which is the third, significantly revised edition of the textbook originally published by Elsevier Science — emphasizes the interdependence of mathematical formulation and physical meaning in the description of seismic phenomena. Herein, we use aspects of continuum mechanics, wave theory and ray theory to explain phenomena resulting from the propagation of seismic waves. The book is divided into three main sections: Elastic Continua, Waves and Rays and Variational Formulation of Rays. There is also a fourth part, which consists of appendices. In Elastic Continua, we use continuum mechanics to describe the material through which seismic waves propagate, and to formulate a system of equations to study the behaviour of such a material. In Waves and Rays, we use these equations to identify the types of body waves propagating in elastic continua as well as to express their velocities and displacements in terms of the properties of these continua. To solve the equations of motion in anisotropic inhomogeneous continua, we invoke the concept of a ray. In Variational Formulation of Rays, we show that, in elastic continua, a ray is tantamount to a trajectory along which a seismic signal propagates in accordance with the variational principle of stationary traveltime. Consequently, many seismic problems in elastic continua can be conveniently formulated and solved using the calculus of variations. In the Appendices, we describe two mathematical concepts that are used in the book; namely, homogeneity of a function and Legendre's transformation. This section also contains a list of symbols. Request Inspection Copy

"Physical modelling of earthquake generation processes is essential to further our understanding of seismic hazard. However, the scale-dependent nature of earthquake rupture processes is further complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the crust. Despite significant advances in the understanding of earthquake generation processes, and the derivation of underlying physical laws, controversy remains regarding what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. It is extremely difficult to obtain field data to define physical properties along a fault during a rupture event, at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to resolve the controversy. Instead, laboratory experiments offer a means of obtaining high-resolution measurements that allow the physical nature of shear rupture processes to be deduced. This important new book is written using consistent notation, providing a deeper understanding of earthquake processes from nucleation to their dynamic propagation. Its key focus is a deductive approach based on laboratory-derived physical laws and formulae, such as a unifying constitutive law, a constitutive scaling law, and a physical model of shear rupture nucleation. Topics covered include: the fundamentals of rock failure physics, earthquake generation processes, physical scale dependence, and large-earthquake generation cycles and their seismic activity"--

Seismology, as a branch of mathematical physics, is an active subject of both research and development. Its reliance on computational and technological advances continuously motivates the developments of its underlying theory. The fourth edition of Waves and Rays in Elastic Continua responds to these needs.The book is both a research reference and a textbook. Its careful and explanatory style, which includes numerous exercises with detailed solutions, makes it an excellent textbook for the senior undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as for an independent study. Used in its entirety, the book could serve as a sole textbook for a year-long course in quantitative seismology. Its parts, however, are designed to be used independently for shorter courses with different emphases. The book is not limited to quantitive seismology; it can serve as a textbook for courses in mathematical physics or applied mathematics.

Earthquakes are a way of life on Earth, and, whether you live in an area that is often affected by earthquakes or not, every building, every road, every bridge, and, in fact, almost everything constructed by humans in which we walk, sleep, live, sit, or visit, has to be constructed to withstand an earthquake, by following local, regional, or national codes, laws, and regulations. Further to this, the science and engineering behind these constructions go further than what is mandated by government as a part of their practice. All construction, and, in general, all life on Earth, has some risk of seismic impacts. A comprehensive description of any seismic action may be given only on a probabilistic basis and, in general, is very bulky and quite uncertain. However, for a variety of structures or systems that meet fairly simple models of behavior during earthquakes, a general description of the seismic action is not required, for prediction of the status of such facilities or systems may be sufficient to define one or more common parameters of seismic impact. Thus, it makes sense to search for optimal parameters of influence in which optimality is understood with the greatest ease with sufficient information. This book contains a description of several models of seismic effects and examples of implementation of these models at specific sites. Using this information, scientists and engineers can design structures that are stronger, safer, and longer-lasting. It is a must-have for any scientist, engineer, or student working in or researching seismic loads and constructions with a view toward withstanding seismic activity.

This book introduces a methodology for solving the seismic inverse problem using purely numerical solutions built on 3D wave equations and which is free of the approximations or simplifications that are common in classical seismic inversion methodologies and therefore applicable to arbitrary 3D geological media and seismic source models. Source codes provided allow readers to experiment with the calculations demonstrated and also explore their own applications.