Regionalism is under stress. Europe is no longer the uncontested model of regional integration, and regional integration is no longer perceived to be a linear process. That the EU suffers from similar setbacks as other regional organizations facilitates a comparison with regional organizations elsewhere and reopens the debate on the role of regions in the future world order. Do the forces of globalization and the emergence of multipolarity create a 'world of regions', or is the centrifugal pull of extra-regional actors leading to more cross-regional patterns of cooperation? Picking up current IR debates about the role and importance of regions in global politics, this volume asks whether regions have become politically more fragmented and economically less integrated. By starting from the assumption that there are commonalities, parallel developments and reciprocal influences, it analyzes European and Latin American experiences within a broader comparative framework and explores which stress factors may have an impact on regionalism. This book's contribution to comparative regionalism, means it will be of interest to all students of international relations, the European Union, Latin American politics, international organisations and global governance.
Regionalism is under stress. The European Union has been challenged by the Eurozone crisis, refugee flows, terrorist attacks, Euroscepticism, and Brexit. In Latin America, regional cooperation has been stagnating. Studying Europe and Latin America within a broader comparative perspective, this volume provides an analytical framework to assess stress factors facing regionalism. The contributors explore how economic and financial crises, security challenges, identity questions raised by immigration and refugee flows, the rise of populism, and shifting regional and global power dynamics have had an impact on regionalism; whether the EU crisis has had repercussions for regionalisms in other parts of the world; and to what extent the impact of stress factors is mediated by characteristics of the region that may provide elements of resilience. Written by specialists from Europe and Latin America with a shared interest in the new field of comparative regionalism, this book will be an invaluable resource for students, scholars and policy specialists in regional integration, European politics, EU studies, Latin American studies, and international relations and international law more generally.
The collapse of Barings bank and the currency crisis in Mexico are just two instances of stress in an international financial system still largely governed by the institutions established by the Bretton Woods Committee in 1944. Here, the authors put forward an agenda for a new system of international economic institutions to fit the changes in international relations. This agenda includes: * an analysis of the role of the Bretton Woods institutions and their relations with the newly created World Trade Organizations * a discussion of the search for world economic governance * an analysis of the crisis within EMS and the prospects for European Monetary Integration * an examination of the integration of private markets in the new economic architecture.
Southwest Under Stress examines the development-environment conflict in the four contiguous states of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. It emphasizes three issues with implications that extend far beyond the Southwest: water---its quantity, quality, and allocation; environment---how and to what extent it should be preserved; and the future of Native American and other poverty-stricken peoples. Energy comes in for special attention because the Southwest is a principal repository of fossil and nuclear fuels. This book serves as a guide for public policy in the region, and many of the policy alternatives set out are aimed at state and local governments. Alleviating poverty, improving the lot of Native Americans, and formulating workable water, environmental, and natural resources development policies are all of special concern to the region, but the federal government has asserted a dominant role in may of these areas. The book discusses ways in which the federal role may change to improve both federal policy itself and cooperation with other levels of government.
This volume analyses South American regional and international cooperation during the COVID19 crisis started in 2020. Across thirteen chapters a collection of leading experts address how regional collaboration has developed, evolved, and recoiled. The chapters explore the state of regionalism at the pandemic surge and the challenges and opportunities this situation has opened for regional and international cooperation. Authors analyze the role of extra-regional powers and traditional regional leaders during the pandemic, identifying the extent to which regional cooperation has been possible across several policy agendas. They argue that fragmented visions of regionalism, ideological polarization, and weak leadership, has prevailed from before the pandemic which, accompanied by adverse interactions among major powers, has ensured that cooperation has remained bilateral rather than regional. Ultimately all these factors have created a complex scenario in which disintegration dynamics have emerged, darkening, even more, the South American regional panorama. Regional and International Cooperation in South America After COVID will be an invaluable resource for students, scholars and policy specialists of regionalism and regional integration, Latin American studies, international relations and international political economy.
Brexit confirms that the EU is not a super-state in the making but rather an advanced regional organization. This book bridges the gap between EU studies and international relations by providing a student-friendly presentation of regional, multidimensional cooperation among neighbouring states and societies, its four epochs and relevant variations and similarities across five continents, its interplay with globalization, and the changing post-hegemonic and post-Cold War international order. This text secondly focuses on the question of regionalism in hard times: whether the global financial crisis and multipolar power politics are leading to more competitive and political forms of instrumental regionalism and interregionalism in Europe, East-Asia and the Americas. It does this by addressing the political and strategic dimensions of changing regional/interregional arrangements and their current and potential impact on global governance, notably on trade and security challenges.
New Regionalism, promoted as a new paradigm of development by the OECD, suggests that globalization is bringing together new technologies, management, employees and communities to form new patterns of local governance. However, despite the growing influence of New Regionalism in regional development policy in the West, and increasingly in Australia, there has been little debate about the relevance and application of these ideas in Australia. Bringing together contributions from academics, practitioners and policy makers, this book redresses this imbalance by examining the theoretical and empirical foundations of this powerful and growing school of thought, locating the debate firmly in the Australian context. With an opening chapter by Kevin Morgan (Cardiff University), who has been at the heart of the New Regionalism debate, the book provides important insights into the theory and practice of New Regionalism in this vibrant region.
This book examines the drivers of regionalism and integration in both Europe and Asia and seeks to forge comparative perspectives between the two regions. Comprising contributions from scholars, analysts and policymakers, this volume explores and debates how and why regional bodies such as the European Union (EU) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are formed and sustained. Furthermore, it examines the drivers of, and impediments to, regionalism and integration. The debates regarding what and who constitute drivers are presented in a fresh, thematic and comprehensive manner. Leadership and core states are also critically examined, whilst material, ideational and normative factors are all assessed comparatively. Significantly, in light of the global financial crisis, the book considers the role of crisis as a driver of regionalism and integration. This book will be of interest to students, scholars and policymakers interested in Asian and European politics and comparative politics.
Most regions of the world are plagued by conflicts that are made insoluble by a confluence of complex threads from history, geography, politics, and culture. These "frozen conflicts" defy conflict management interventions by both internal and external agents and institutions. Worse, they constantly threaten to extend beyond their local geographies, as in the terrorist bombings in Boston by ethnic Chechens, or to escalate from skirmishes to full-scale war, as in Nagorno-Karabakh. Consequently, such conflicts cry out for alternative approaches to the classic, state-focused, and sovereignty-based conflict management models that are practiced in traditional diplomacy—which most often produce rather short-term, ad hoc, fragmented interventions and outcomes. Drawing upon the cases of the South Caucasus, the Western Balkans, Central America, South East Asia, and Northern Ireland, Networked Regionalism as Conflict Management offers a theoretical and practical solution to this impasse by arguing for regional collective interventions that involve a long-term reengineering of existing conflict management infrastructure on the ground. Such approaches have been attracting the attention of scholars and practitioners alike yet, thus far, these concepts have rarely involved more than simple prescriptions for regional cooperation between grassroots actors and traditional diplomacy. Specifically, says Anna Ohanyan, only the cultivation and establishment of regional peace systems can provide an effective path toward conflict management in these standoffs in such intractably divided regions.
In the decade since the Asian financial crisis the ten states of Southeast Asia that form ASEAN, together with China, Japan and South Korea have formed the basis of a community intended to support the well-being of its member states, markets and peoples. This highly successful regionalisation was not anticipated by the region’s leaders, however, and as a result, policy makers are increasingly talking about ‘meeting fatigue’ and the need to find a better way to govern regional affairs. Among the reforms being considered is a shift towards a more rules-based culture as well as the more explicit incorporation of both private sector and civil society organisations into the policy processes. In short, ASEAN+3 is seeking to develop new norms and processes for its networks and institutions. This book explores the pressures currently influencing East Asian regionalist policy debates, analysing the trend towards deeper integration and the emergence of a governance model for managing regional processes. Combining state and subnational perspectives in conjunction with an examination of the role of the business community and civil society organisations, this book highlights the policy challenges confronting regionalism and governance in East Asia, including key issues such as the rule of law, financial cooperation and a case study on disaster management.
The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism - the first of its kind - offers a systematic and wide-ranging survey of the scholarship on regionalism, regionalization, and regional governance. Unpacking the major debates, leading authors of the field synthesize the state of the art, provide a guide to the comparative study of regionalism, and identify future avenues of research. Twenty-seven chapters review the theoretical and empirical scholarship with regard to the emergence of regionalism, the institutional design of regional organizations and issue-specific governance, as well as the effects of regionalism and its relationship with processes of regionalization. The authors explore theories of cooperation, integration, and diffusion explaining the rise and the different forms of regionalism. The handbook also discusses the state of the art on the world regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Eurasia, Asia, North Africa and the Middle East, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Various chapters survey the literature on regional governance in major issue areas such as security and peace, trade and finance, environment, migration, social and gender policies, as well as democracy and human rights. Finally, the handbook engages in cross-regional comparisons with regard to institutional design, dispute settlement, identities and communities, legitimacy and democracy, as well as inter- and transregionalism.