Historians have long asserted that during and after the Hannibalic War, the Roman Republic's need to conscript men for long-term military service helped bring about the demise of Italy's small farms and that the misery of impoverished citizens then became fuel for the social and political conflagrations of the late republic. Nathan Rosenstein challenges this claim, showing how Rome reconciled the needs of war and agriculture throughout the middle republic. The key, Rosenstein argues, lies in recognizing the critical role of family formation. By analyzing models of families' needs for agricultural labor over their life cycles, he shows that families often had a surplus of manpower to meet the demands of military conscription. Did, then, Roman imperialism play any role in the social crisis of the later second century B.C.? Rosenstein argues that Roman warfare had critical demographic consequences that have gone unrecognized by previous historians: heavy military mortality paradoxically helped sustain a dramatic increase in the birthrate, ultimately leading to overpopulation and landlessness.
The Roman Empire was the greatest the world has ever seen, and its legendary military might was the foundation of this success. This compact volume tells the fascinating story of the major conflicts that shaped the empire, from Julius Caesar's bloody Gallic Wars and the Civil War against Pompey that left the victorious Caesar Dictator of Rome, through the wars of expansion to its decline and fragmentation. Beautiful full colour artwork of the soldiers and battles bring the Roman world to life, along with images and colour maps.
The renowned archeologist’s classic guide to twelve centuries of ancient military development, beautifully presented in colorful illustrations and diagrams. Generations of archeologists have been inspired by Peter Connolly’s beautifully rendered, highly detailed illustrations of ancient arms and armies. This comprehensive volume offers a bird’s eye view of not only battles, but the weapons, shields, and armor used centuries ago by Greek and Roman warriors. With extensive text describing each piece, this collection offers an ideal introduction to the subject of warfare in the ancient world spanning from 800 BC to 450 AD. Incorporating new archaeological research and the contributions of other scholars in the field, this new edition of Greece and Rome at War provides detailed explanations of the classical armies’ manufacture and use of their armaments. These full-color illustrations, maps, diagrams, and photographs bring the past to vivid life. Includes a preface by Adrian Goldsworthy.
In the early third century AD the Roman Empire was a force to be reckoned with, controlling vast territories and wielding enormous political power from Scotland to the Sahara. 400 years later this mighty Empire was falling apart in the face of successive problems that the rulers failed to deal with. In this challenging new volume Michael Whitby tackles the fundamental issues (such as the rise of Christianity) that led to the 'decline and fall' of the Roman Empire, and offers a startling reassessment of the performance of the late Roman army.
Using information from the latest archaeological sources, this new edition of 'Greece and Rome at War' examines 12 centuries of military development and the wars fought between Greece and Rome and other countries, including Persia and Carthage.
In the closing years of the second century B.C., the ancient world watched as the Roman armies maintained clear superiority over all they surveyed. But, social turmoil prevailed at the heart of her territories, led by an increasing number of dispossessed farmers, too little manpower for the army, and an inevitable conflict with the allies who had fought side by side with the Romans to establish Roman dominion. Storming the Heavens looks at this dramatic history from a variety of angles. What changed most radically, Santosuosso argues, was the behavior of soldiers in the Roman armies. The troops became the enemies within, their pillage and slaughter of fellow citizens indiscriminate, their loyalty not to the Republic but to their leaders, as long as they were ample providers of booty. By opening the military ranks to all, the new army abandoned its role as depository of the values of the upper classes and the propertied. Instead, it became an institution of the poor and drain on the power of the Empire. Santosuosso also investigates other topics, such as the monopoly of military power in the hands of a few, the connection between the armed forces and the cherished values of the state, the manipulation of the lower classes so that they would accept the view of life, control, and power dictated by the oligarchy, and the subjugation and dehumanization of subject peoples, whether they be Gauls, Britons, Germans, Africans, or even the Romans themselves.