Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439870938

Category: Mathematics

Page: 481

View: 964

Focusing on an integral part of pharmaceutical development, Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition presents statistical procedures for performing sample size calculations during various phases of clinical research and development. It provides sample size formulas and procedures for testing equality, noninferiority/superiority, and equivalence. A comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical concepts and practical applications, this book highlights the interactions between clinicians and biostatisticians, includes a well-balanced summary of current and emerging clinical issues, and explores recently developed statistical methodologies for sample size calculation. Whenever possible, each chapter provides a brief history or background, regulatory requirements, statistical designs and methods for data analysis, real-world examples, future research developments, and related references. One of the few books to systematically summarize clinical research procedures, this edition contains new chapters that focus on three key areas of this field. Incorporating the material of this book in your work will help ensure the validity and, ultimately, the success of your clinical studies.

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351727112

Category: Mathematics

Page: 954

View: 659

Praise for the Second Edition: "... this is a useful, comprehensive compendium of almost every possible sample size formula. The strong organization and carefully defined formulae will aid any researcher designing a study." -Biometrics "This impressive book contains formulae for computing sample size in a wide range of settings. One-sample studies and two-sample comparisons for quantitative, binary, and time-to-event outcomes are covered comprehensively, with separate sample size formulae for testing equality, non-inferiority, and equivalence. Many less familiar topics are also covered ..." – Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Third Edition presents statistical procedures for performing sample size calculations during various phases of clinical research and development. A comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical concepts and practical applications, this book includes a well-balanced summary of current and emerging clinical issues, regulatory requirements, and recently developed statistical methodologies for sample size calculation. Features: Compares the relative merits and disadvantages of statistical methods for sample size calculations Explains how the formulae and procedures for sample size calculations can be used in a variety of clinical research and development stages Presents real-world examples from several therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular medicine, the central nervous system, anti-infective medicine, oncology, and women’s health Provides sample size calculations for dose response studies, microarray studies, and Bayesian approaches This new edition is updated throughout, includes many new sections, and five new chapters on emerging topics: two stage seamless adaptive designs, cluster randomized trial design, zero-inflated Poisson distribution, clinical trials with extremely low incidence rates, and clinical trial simulation.

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351727129

Category: Mathematics

Page: 510

View: 664

Praise for the Second Edition: "... this is a useful, comprehensive compendium of almost every possible sample size formula. The strong organization and carefully defined formulae will aid any researcher designing a study." -Biometrics "This impressive book contains formulae for computing sample size in a wide range of settings. One-sample studies and two-sample comparisons for quantitative, binary, and time-to-event outcomes are covered comprehensively, with separate sample size formulae for testing equality, non-inferiority, and equivalence. Many less familiar topics are also covered ..." – Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Third Edition presents statistical procedures for performing sample size calculations during various phases of clinical research and development. A comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical concepts and practical applications, this book includes a well-balanced summary of current and emerging clinical issues, regulatory requirements, and recently developed statistical methodologies for sample size calculation. Features: Compares the relative merits and disadvantages of statistical methods for sample size calculations Explains how the formulae and procedures for sample size calculations can be used in a variety of clinical research and development stages Presents real-world examples from several therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular medicine, the central nervous system, anti-infective medicine, oncology, and women’s health Provides sample size calculations for dose response studies, microarray studies, and Bayesian approaches This new edition is updated throughout, includes many new sections, and five new chapters on emerging topics: two stage seamless adaptive designs, cluster randomized trial design, zero-inflated Poisson distribution, clinical trials with extremely low incidence rates, and clinical trial simulation.

Data and Safety Monitoring Committees in Clinical Trials, Second Edition

Data and Safety Monitoring Committees in Clinical Trials, Second Edition

Author: Jay Herson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351722377

Category: Mathematics

Page: 273

View: 454

Praise for the first edition: "Given the author’s years of experience as a statistician and as a founder of the first DMC in pharmaceutical industry trials, I highly recommend this book—not only for experts because of its cogent and organized presentation, but more importantly for young investigators who are seeking information about the logistical and philosophical aspects of a DMC." -S. T. Ounpraseuth, The American Statistician ? In the first edition of this well-regarded book, the author provided a groundbreaking and definitive guide to best practices in pharmaceutical industry data monitoring committees (DMCs). Maintaining all the material from the first edition and adding substantial new material, Data and Safety Monitoring Committees in Clinical Trials, Second Edition is ideal for training professionals to serve on their first DMC as well as for experienced clinical and biostatistical DMC members, sponsor and regulatory agency staff. The second edition guides the reader through newly emerging DMC responsibilities brought about by regulations emphasizing risk vs benefit and the emergence of risk-based monitoring. It also provides the reader with many new statistical methods, clinical trial designs and clinical terminology that have emerged since the first edition. The references have been updated and the very popular end-of-chapter Q&A section has been supplemented with many new experiences since the first edition. ? New to the Second Edition: Presents statistical methods, tables, listings and graphs appropriate for safety review, efficacy analysis and risk vs benefit analysis, SPERT and PRISMA initiatives. Newly added interim analysis for efficacy and futility section. DMC responsibilities in SUSARs (Serious Unexpected Serious Adverse Reactions), basket trials, umbrella trials, dynamic treatment strategies /SMART trials, pragmatic trials, biosimilar trials, companion diagnostics, etc. DMC responsibilities for data quality and fraud detection (Fraud Recovery Plan) Use of patient reported outcomes of safety Use of meta analysis and data outside the trial New ideas for training and compensation of DMC members ? Jay Herson is Senior Associate, Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health where he teaches courses on clinical trials and drug development based on his many years experience in clinical trials in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Sample Size Calculations for Clustered and Longitudinal Outcomes in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations for Clustered and Longitudinal Outcomes in Clinical Research

Author: Chul Ahn

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466556270

Category: Mathematics

Page: 260

View: 505

Accurate sample size calculation ensures that clinical studies have adequate power to detect clinically meaningful effects. This results in the efficient use of resources and avoids exposing a disproportionate number of patients to experimental treatments caused by an overpowered study. Sample Size Calculations for Clustered and Longitudinal Outcom

Sample Size Determination and Power

Sample Size Determination and Power

Author: Thomas P. Ryan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118439227

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 532

A comprehensive approach to sample size determination and power with applications for a variety of fields Sample Size Determination and Power features a modern introduction to the applicability of sample size determination and provides a variety of discussions on broad topics including epidemiology, microarrays, survival analysis and reliability, design of experiments, regression, and confidence intervals. The book distinctively merges applications from numerous fields such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, and engineering in order to provide a complete introduction to the general statistical use of sample size determination. Advanced topics including multivariate analysis, clinical trials, and quality improvement are addressed, and in addition, the book provides considerable guidance on available software for sample size determination. Written by a well-known author who has extensively class-tested the material, Sample Size Determination and Power: Highlights the applicability of sample size determination and provides extensive literature coverage Presents a modern, general approach to relevant software to guide sample size determination including CATD (computer-aided trial design) Addresses the use of sample size determination in grant proposals and provides up-to-date references for grant investigators An appealing reference book for scientific researchers in a variety of fields, such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, mathematics, ecology, and geology, who use sampling and estimation methods in their work, Sample Size Determination and Power is also an ideal supplementary text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in statistical sampling.

Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition

Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition

Author: Michael C. Newman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439835647

Category: Science

Page: 595

View: 688

Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author’s previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment. Encouraging a more rigorous inferential approach to research, the book examines the quantitative features of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters lay the foundation by introducing fundamental concepts and definitions. The author traces the historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics of scientific ecotoxicology as well as the general measurement process. He also considers methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions from ecotoxicological endeavors. The book then discusses ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization and outlines quantitative methods used to measure toxicant accumulation and effects. Reflecting the importance of establishing type I and type II error rates, it highlights design issues, particularly sample size and power estimation. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicology from a nonregulatory perspective. Extensively updated, this second edition has been expanded to include terrestrial as well as aquatic ecotoxicology. Requiring only a basic knowledge of statistics, this highly readable book is suitable for graduate students and researchers as well as practicing environmental scientists and engineers. It guides readers to better understand the fate and effects of toxicants in the biosphere—and helps them frame this understanding in quantitative terms. What’s New in This Edition More than 40 new figures and 20 new worked examples Updated measurement quality methods and software Expanded coverage of synecological models and methods More integration of Bayesian concepts Appendices for power analysis and basic matrix methods Additional mixture toxicity and up-and-down methods Greatly expanded discussion of significance testing Expanded discussion of metapopulations Matrix tools for population demography Light isotope-based models for trophic transfer of toxicants Inclusion of metacommunity and SHE analysis techniques R script examples by Eduard Szöcs (University Koblenz-Landau) available at http://edild.github.io/blog/categories/quantitative-ecotoxicology-with-r/

Textbook of Clinical Trials in Oncology

Textbook of Clinical Trials in Oncology

Author: Susan Halabi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351620963

Category: Medical

Page: 701

View: 215

There is an increasing need for educational resources for statisticians and investigators. Reflecting this, the goal of this book is to provide readers with a sound foundation in the statistical design, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials. Furthermore, it is intended as a guide for statisticians and investigators with minimal clinical trial experience who are interested in pursuing a career in this area. The advancement in genetic and molecular technologies have revolutionized drug development. In recent years, clinical trials have become increasingly sophisticated as they incorporate genomic studies, and efficient designs (such as basket and umbrella trials) have permeated the field. This book offers the requisite background and expert guidance for the innovative statistical design and analysis of clinical trials in oncology. Key Features: Cutting-edge topics with appropriate technical background Built around case studies which give the work a "hands-on" approach Real examples of flaws in previously reported clinical trials and how to avoid them Access to statistical code on the book’s website Chapters written by internationally recognized statisticians from academia and pharmaceutical companies Carefully edited to ensure consistency in style, level, and approach Topics covered include innovating phase I and II designs, trials in immune-oncology and rare diseases, among many others

Clinical Trial Methodology

Clinical Trial Methodology

Author: Karl E. Peace

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1584889187

Category: Mathematics

Page: 420

View: 252

Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide a valid inference about the objective of the trial. Drawing from the authors’ courses on the subject as well as the first author’s more than 30 years working in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical Trial Methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research. From ethical issues and sample size considerations to adaptive design procedures and statistical analysis, the book first covers the methodology that spans every clinical trial regardless of the area of application. Crucial to the generic drug industry, bioequivalence clinical trials are then discussed. The authors describe a parallel bioequivalence clinical trial of six formulations incorporating group sequential procedures that permit sample size re-estimation. The final chapters incorporate real-world case studies of clinical trials from the authors’ own experiences. These examples include a landmark Phase III clinical trial involving the treatment of duodenal ulcers and Phase III clinical trials that contributed to the first drug approved for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Aided by the U.S. FDA, the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the pharmaceutical industry, and academia, the area of clinical trial methodology has evolved over the last six decades into a scientific discipline. This guide explores the processes essential for developing and conducting a quality clinical trial protocol and providing quality data collection, biostatistical analyses, and a clinical study report, all while maintaining the highest standards of ethics and excellence.

Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials

Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials

Author: Scott M. Berry

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439825513

Category: Mathematics

Page: 323

View: 862

Already popular in the analysis of medical device trials, adaptive Bayesian designs are increasingly being used in drug development for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from Alzheimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis to obesity, diabetes, hepatitis C, and HIV. Written by leading pioneers of Bayesian clinical trial designs, Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials explores the growing role of Bayesian thinking in the rapidly changing world of clinical trial analysis. The book first summarizes the current state of clinical trial design and analysis and introduces the main ideas and potential benefits of a Bayesian alternative. It then gives an overview of basic Bayesian methodological and computational tools needed for Bayesian clinical trials. With a focus on Bayesian designs that achieve good power and Type I error, the next chapters present Bayesian tools useful in early (Phase I) and middle (Phase II) clinical trials as well as two recent Bayesian adaptive Phase II studies: the BATTLE and ISPY-2 trials. In the following chapter on late (Phase III) studies, the authors emphasize modern adaptive methods and seamless Phase II–III trials for maximizing information usage and minimizing trial duration. They also describe a case study of a recently approved medical device to treat atrial fibrillation. The concluding chapter covers key special topics, such as the proper use of historical data, equivalence studies, and subgroup analysis. For readers involved in clinical trials research, this book significantly updates and expands their statistical toolkits. The authors provide many detailed examples drawing on real data sets. The R and WinBUGS codes used throughout are available on supporting websites. Scott Berry talks about the book on the CRC Press YouTube Channel.

Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials with Time-to-Event Endpoints

Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials with Time-to-Event Endpoints

Author: Karl E. Peace

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420066401

Category: Mathematics

Page: 616

View: 571

Using time-to-event analysis methodology requires careful definition of the event, censored observation, provision of adequate follow-up, number of events, and independence or "noninformativeness" of the censoring mechanisms relative to the event. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials with Time-to-Event Endpoints provides a thorough presentation of the design, monitoring, analysis, and interpretation of clinical trials in which time-to-event is of critical interest. After reviewing time-to-event endpoint methodology, clinical trial issues, and the design and monitoring of clinical trials, the book focuses on inferential analysis methods, including parametric, semiparametric, categorical, and Bayesian methods; an alternative to the Cox model for small samples; and estimation and testing for change in hazard. It then presents descriptive and graphical methods useful in the analysis of time-to-event endpoints. The next several chapters explore a variety of clinical trials, from analgesic, antibiotic, and antiviral trials to cardiovascular and cancer prevention, prostate cancer, astrocytoma brain tumor, and chronic myelogonous leukemia trials. The book then covers areas of drug development, medical practice, and safety assessment. It concludes with the design and analysis of clinical trials of animals required by the FDA for new drug applications. Drawing on the expert contributors’ experiences working in biomedical research and clinical drug development, this comprehensive resource covers an array of time-to-event methods and explores an assortment of real-world applications.