Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203911342

Category: Mathematics

Page: 376

View: 979

Sample size calculation plays an important role in clinical research. It is not uncommon, however, to observe discrepancies among study objectives (or hypotheses), study design, statistical analysis (or test statistic), and sample size calculation. Focusing on sample size calculation for studies conducted during the various phases of clinical resea

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439870938

Category: Mathematics

Page: 481

View: 489

Focusing on an integral part of pharmaceutical development, Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition presents statistical procedures for performing sample size calculations during various phases of clinical research and development. It provides sample size formulas and procedures for testing equality, noninferiority/superiority, and equivalence. A comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical concepts and practical applications, this book highlights the interactions between clinicians and biostatisticians, includes a well-balanced summary of current and emerging clinical issues, and explores recently developed statistical methodologies for sample size calculation. Whenever possible, each chapter provides a brief history or background, regulatory requirements, statistical designs and methods for data analysis, real-world examples, future research developments, and related references. One of the few books to systematically summarize clinical research procedures, this edition contains new chapters that focus on three key areas of this field. Incorporating the material of this book in your work will help ensure the validity and, ultimately, the success of your clinical studies.

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351727112

Category: Mathematics

Page: 954

View: 545

Praise for the Second Edition: "... this is a useful, comprehensive compendium of almost every possible sample size formula. The strong organization and carefully defined formulae will aid any researcher designing a study." -Biometrics "This impressive book contains formulae for computing sample size in a wide range of settings. One-sample studies and two-sample comparisons for quantitative, binary, and time-to-event outcomes are covered comprehensively, with separate sample size formulae for testing equality, non-inferiority, and equivalence. Many less familiar topics are also covered ..." – Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Third Edition presents statistical procedures for performing sample size calculations during various phases of clinical research and development. A comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical concepts and practical applications, this book includes a well-balanced summary of current and emerging clinical issues, regulatory requirements, and recently developed statistical methodologies for sample size calculation. Features: Compares the relative merits and disadvantages of statistical methods for sample size calculations Explains how the formulae and procedures for sample size calculations can be used in a variety of clinical research and development stages Presents real-world examples from several therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular medicine, the central nervous system, anti-infective medicine, oncology, and women’s health Provides sample size calculations for dose response studies, microarray studies, and Bayesian approaches This new edition is updated throughout, includes many new sections, and five new chapters on emerging topics: two stage seamless adaptive designs, cluster randomized trial design, zero-inflated Poisson distribution, clinical trials with extremely low incidence rates, and clinical trial simulation.

Designing Clinical Research

Designing Clinical Research

Author: Stephen B. Hulley

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9781451165852

Category: Medical

Page: 388

View: 592

Designing Clinical Research sets the standard for providing a practical guide to planning, tabulating, formulating, and implementing clinical research, with an easy-to-read, uncomplicated presentation. This edition incorporates current research methodology—including molecular and genetic clinical research—and offers an updated syllabus for conducting a clinical research workshop. Emphasis is on common sense as the main ingredient of good science. The book explains how to choose well-focused research questions and details the steps through all the elements of study design, data collection, quality assurance, and basic grant-writing. All chapters have been thoroughly revised, updated, and made more user-friendly.

Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials

Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials

Author: Steven A. Julious

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1584887400

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 656

Drawing on various real-world applications, Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials takes readers through the process of calculating sample sizes for many types of clinical trials. It provides descriptions of the calculations with a practical emphasis. Focusing on normal, binary, ordinal, and survival data, the book explores a range of trials, including superiority, equivalence, non-inferiority, bioequivalence, and precision for both parallel group and crossover designs. The author discusses how trial objectives impact the study design with respect to the derivation of formulae for sample size calculations. He uses real-life studies throughout to show how the concepts and calculations can be employed. This work underscores the importance of sample size calculation in the design of a clinical trial. With useful calculation tables throughout, it enables readers to quickly find an appropriate formula, formula application, and associated worked example. Watch the author speak about this book at JSM 2012 in San Diego.

Methods and Applications of Sample Size Calculation and Recalculation in Clinical Trials

Methods and Applications of Sample Size Calculation and Recalculation in Clinical Trials

Author: Meinhard Kieser

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030495282

Category: Biometry

Page: 391

View: 696

This book provides an extensive overview of the principles and methods of sample size calculation and recalculation in clinical trials. Appropriate calculation of the required sample size is crucial for the success of clinical trials. At the same time, a sample size that is too small or too large is problematic due to ethical, scientific, and economic reasons. Therefore, state-of-the art methods are required when planning clinical trials. Part I describes a general framework for deriving sample size calculation procedures. This enables an understanding of the common principles underlying the numerous methods presented in the following chapters. Part II addresses the fixed sample size design, where the required sample size is determined in the planning stage and is not changed afterwards. It covers sample size calculation methods for superiority, non-inferiority, and equivalence trials, as well as comparisons between two and more than two groups. A wide range of further topics is discussed, including sample size calculation for multiple comparisons, safety assessment, and multi-regional trials. There is often some uncertainty about the assumptions to be made when calculating the sample size upfront. Part III presents methods that allow to modify the initially specified sample size based on new information that becomes available during the ongoing trial. Blinded sample size recalculation procedures for internal pilot study designs are considered, as well as methods for sample size reassessment in adaptive designs that use unblinded data from interim analyses. The application is illustrated using numerous clinical trial examples, and software code implementing the methods is provided. The book offers theoretical background and practical advice for biostatisticians and clinicians from the pharmaceutical industry and academia who are involved in clinical trials. Covering basic as well as more advanced and recently developed methods, it is suitable for beginners, experienced applied statisticians, and practitioners. To gain maximum benefit, readers should be familiar with introductory statistics. The content of this book has been successfully used for courses on the topic.

Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials

Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials

Author: Steven A. Julious

Publisher: Chapman and Hall/CRC

ISBN: 1584887397

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 998

Drawing on various real-world applications, Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials takes readers through the process of calculating sample sizes for many types of clinical trials. It provides descriptions of the calculations with a practical emphasis. Focusing on normal, binary, ordinal, and survival data, the book explores a range of trials, including superiority, equivalence, non-inferiority, bioequivalence, and precision for both parallel group and crossover designs. The author discusses how trial objectives impact the study design with respect to the derivation of formulae for sample size calculations. He uses real-life studies throughout to show how the concepts and calculations can be employed. This work underscores the importance of sample size calculation in the design of a clinical trial. With useful calculation tables throughout, it enables readers to quickly find an appropriate formula, formula application, and associated worked example. Watch the author speak about this book at JSM 2012 in San Diego.

Sample Size Calculations for Clustered and Longitudinal Outcomes in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations for Clustered and Longitudinal Outcomes in Clinical Research

Author: Chul Ahn

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466556270

Category: Mathematics

Page: 260

View: 742

Accurate sample size calculation ensures that clinical studies have adequate power to detect clinically meaningful effects. This results in the efficient use of resources and avoids exposing a disproportionate number of patients to experimental treatments caused by an overpowered study. Sample Size Calculations for Clustered and Longitudinal Outcom

Principles and Practice of Clinical Research

Principles and Practice of Clinical Research

Author: John I. Gallin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080489567

Category: Medical

Page: 448

View: 398

The second edition of this innovative work again provides a unique perspective on the clinical discovery process by providing input from experts within the NIH on the principles and practice of clinical research. Molecular medicine, genomics, and proteomics have opened vast opportunities for translation of basic science observations to the bedside through clinical research. As an introductory reference it gives clinical investigators in all fields an awareness of the tools required to ensure research protocols are well designed and comply with the rigorous regulatory requirements necessary to maximize the safety of research subjects. Complete with sections on the history of clinical research and ethics, copious figures and charts, and sample documents it serves as an excellent companion text for any course on clinical research and as a must-have reference for seasoned researchers. *Incorporates new chapters on Managing Conflicts of Interest in Human Subjects Research, Clinical Research from the Patient's Perspective, The Clinical Researcher and the Media, Data Management in Clinical Research, Evaluation of a Protocol Budget, Clinical Research from the Industry Perspective, and Genetics in Clinical Research *Addresses the vast opportunities for translation of basic science observations to the bedside through clinical research *Delves into data management and addresses how to collect data and use it for discovery *Contains valuable, up-to-date information on how to obtain funding from the federal government

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824709705

Category: Mathematics

Page: 358

View: 208

Sample size calculation plays an important role in clinical research. It is not uncommon, however, to observe discrepancies among study objectives (or hypotheses), study design, statistical analysis (or test statistic), and sample size calculation. Focusing on sample size calculation for studies conducted during the various phases of clinical research and development, Sample Size Calculation in Clinical Research explores the causes of discrepancies and how to avoid them. This volume provides formulas and procedures for determination of sample size required not only for testing equality, but also for testing non-inferiority/superiority, and equivalence (similarity) based on both untransformed (raw) data and log-transformed data under a parallel-group design or a crossover design with equal or unequal ratio of treatment allocations. It contains a comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical procedures for sample size calculation that are commonly employed at various phases of clinical development. Each chapter includes, whenever possible, real examples of clinical studies from therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, anti-infective, oncology, and women's health to demonstrate the clinical and statistical concepts, interpretations, and their relationships and interactions. The book highlights statistical procedures for sample size calculation and justification that are commonly employed in clinical research and development. It provides clear, illustrated explanations of how the derived formulas and/or statistical procedures can be used.

Sample Sizes for Clinical, Laboratory and Epidemiology Studies

Sample Sizes for Clinical, Laboratory and Epidemiology Studies

Author: David Machin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118874943

Category: Medical

Page: 406

View: 350

An authoritative resource that offers the statistical tools and software needed to design and plan valid clinical studies Now in its fourth and extended edition, Sample Sizes for Clinical, Laboratory and Epidemiology Studiesincludes the sample size software (SSS) and formulae and numerical tables needed to design valid clinical studies. The text covers clinical as well as laboratory and epidemiology studies and contains the information needed to ensure a study will form a valid contribution to medical research. The authors, noted experts in the field, explain step by step and explore the wide range of considerations necessary to assist investigational teams when deriving an appropriate sample size for their when planned study. The book contains sets of sample size tables with companion explanations and clear worked out examples based on real data. In addition, the text offers bibliography and references sections that are designed to be helpful with guidance on the principles discussed. This revised fourth edition: Offers the only text available to include sample size software for use in designing and planning clinical studies Presents new and extended chapters with many additional and refreshed examples Includes clear explanations of the principles and methodologies involved with relevant practical examples Makes clear a complex but vital topic that is designed to ensure valid methodology and publishable results Contains guidance from an internationally recognised team of medical statistics experts Written for medical researchers from all specialities and medical statisticians, Sample Sizes for Clinical, Laboratory and EpidemiologyStudies offers an updated fourth edition of the important guide for designing and planning reliable and evidence based clinical studies.