Sample Size Determination in Clinical Trials with Multiple Endpoints

Sample Size Determination in Clinical Trials with Multiple Endpoints

Author: Takashi Sozu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319220047

Category: Mathematics

Page: 95

View: 769

This book integrates recent methodological developments for calculating the sample size and power in trials with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, offering an important reference work for statisticians working in this area. The determination of sample size and the evaluation of power are fundamental and critical elements in the design of clinical trials. If the sample size is too small, important effects may go unnoticed; if the sample size is too large, it represents a waste of resources and unethically puts more participants at risk than necessary. Recently many clinical trials have been designed with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, creating a need for new approaches to the design and analysis of these clinical trials. The book focuses on the evaluation of power and sample size determination when comparing the effects of two interventions in superiority clinical trials with multiple endpoints. Methods for sample size calculation in clinical trials where the alternative hypothesis is that there are effects on ALL endpoints are discussed in detail. The book also briefly examines trials designed with an alternative hypothesis of an effect on AT LEAST ONE endpoint with a prespecified non-ordering of endpoints.

Sample Size Determination in Clinical Trials with Multiple Endpoints

Sample Size Determination in Clinical Trials with Multiple Endpoints

Author: Takashi Sozu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319220055

Category: Mathematics

Page: 95

View: 814

This book integrates recent methodological developments for calculating the sample size and power in trials with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, offering an important reference work for statisticians working in this area. The determination of sample size and the evaluation of power are fundamental and critical elements in the design of clinical trials. If the sample size is too small, important effects may go unnoticed; if the sample size is too large, it represents a waste of resources and unethically puts more participants at risk than necessary. Recently many clinical trials have been designed with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, creating a need for new approaches to the design and analysis of these clinical trials. The book focuses on the evaluation of power and sample size determination when comparing the effects of two interventions in superiority clinical trials with multiple endpoints. Methods for sample size calculation in clinical trials where the alternative hypothesis is that there are effects on ALL endpoints are discussed in detail. The book also briefly examines trials designed with an alternative hypothesis of an effect on AT LEAST ONE endpoint with a prespecified non-ordering of endpoints.

Group-Sequential Clinical Trials with Multiple Co-Objectives

Group-Sequential Clinical Trials with Multiple Co-Objectives

Author: Toshimitsu Hamasaki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9784431559009

Category: Mathematics

Page: 113

View: 987

This book focuses on group sequential methods for clinical trials with co-primary endpoints based on the decision-making frameworks for: (1) rejecting the null hypothesis (stopping for efficacy), (2) rejecting the alternative hypothesis (stopping for futility), and (3) rejecting the null or alternative hypothesis (stopping for either futility or efficacy), where the trial is designed to evaluate whether the intervention is superior to the control on all endpoints. For assessing futility, there are two fundamental approaches, i.e., the decision to stop for futility based on the conditional probability of rejecting the null hypothesis, and the other based on stopping boundaries using group sequential methods. In this book, the latter approach is discussed. The book also briefly deals with the group sequential methods for clinical trials designed to evaluate whether the intervention is superior to the control on at least one endpoint. In addition, the book describes sample size recalculation and the resulting effect on power and type I error rate. The book also describes group sequential strategies for three-arm clinical trials to demonstrate the non-inferiority of experimental intervention to actively control and to assess the assay sensitivity to placebo control.

Sample Size Determination and Power

Sample Size Determination and Power

Author: Thomas P. Ryan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118439227

Category: Medical

Page: 400

View: 383

A comprehensive approach to sample size determination and power with applications for a variety of fields Sample Size Determination and Power features a modern introduction to the applicability of sample size determination and provides a variety of discussions on broad topics including epidemiology, microarrays, survival analysis and reliability, design of experiments, regression, and confidence intervals. The book distinctively merges applications from numerous fields such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, and engineering in order to provide a complete introduction to the general statistical use of sample size determination. Advanced topics including multivariate analysis, clinical trials, and quality improvement are addressed, and in addition, the book provides considerable guidance on available software for sample size determination. Written by a well-known author who has extensively class-tested the material, Sample Size Determination and Power: Highlights the applicability of sample size determination and provides extensive literature coverage Presents a modern, general approach to relevant software to guide sample size determination including CATD (computer-aided trial design) Addresses the use of sample size determination in grant proposals and provides up-to-date references for grant investigators An appealing reference book for scientific researchers in a variety of fields, such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, mathematics, ecology, and geology, who use sampling and estimation methods in their work, Sample Size Determination and Power is also an ideal supplementary text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in statistical sampling.

Methods and Applications of Sample Size Calculation and Recalculation in Clinical Trials

Methods and Applications of Sample Size Calculation and Recalculation in Clinical Trials

Author: Meinhard Kieser

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030495282

Category: Biometry

Page: 391

View: 687

This book provides an extensive overview of the principles and methods of sample size calculation and recalculation in clinical trials. Appropriate calculation of the required sample size is crucial for the success of clinical trials. At the same time, a sample size that is too small or too large is problematic due to ethical, scientific, and economic reasons. Therefore, state-of-the art methods are required when planning clinical trials. Part I describes a general framework for deriving sample size calculation procedures. This enables an understanding of the common principles underlying the numerous methods presented in the following chapters. Part II addresses the fixed sample size design, where the required sample size is determined in the planning stage and is not changed afterwards. It covers sample size calculation methods for superiority, non-inferiority, and equivalence trials, as well as comparisons between two and more than two groups. A wide range of further topics is discussed, including sample size calculation for multiple comparisons, safety assessment, and multi-regional trials. There is often some uncertainty about the assumptions to be made when calculating the sample size upfront. Part III presents methods that allow to modify the initially specified sample size based on new information that becomes available during the ongoing trial. Blinded sample size recalculation procedures for internal pilot study designs are considered, as well as methods for sample size reassessment in adaptive designs that use unblinded data from interim analyses. The application is illustrated using numerous clinical trial examples, and software code implementing the methods is provided. The book offers theoretical background and practical advice for biostatisticians and clinicians from the pharmaceutical industry and academia who are involved in clinical trials. Covering basic as well as more advanced and recently developed methods, it is suitable for beginners, experienced applied statisticians, and practitioners. To gain maximum benefit, readers should be familiar with introductory statistics. The content of this book has been successfully used for courses on the topic.

Simultaneous Global New Drug Development

Simultaneous Global New Drug Development

Author: Gang Li

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000485028

Category: Mathematics

Page: 344

View: 314

Global simultaneous development is becoming more necessary as the cost of developing medical products continues to grow. The strategy of using multiregional clinical trials (MRCTs) has become the preferred method for developing new medicines. Implementing the same protocol to include subjects from many geographical regions around the world, MRCTs can speed up the patient enrolment, thus resulting in quicker drug development and obtaining faster approval of the drug globally. After the publication of the editors’ first volume on this topic, there have been new developments on MRCTs. The International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) issued ICH E17, a guideline document on MRCTs, in November 2017, laying out principles on MRCTs. Beyond E17, new methodologies have been developed as well. Simultaneous Global New Drug Development: Multi-Regional Clinical Trials after ICH E17 collects chapters providing interpretations of principles in ICH E17 and new ideas of implementing MRCTs. Authors are from different regions, and from academia and industry. In addition, in contrast to the first book, new perspectives are brought to MRCT from regulatory agencies. This book will be of particular interest to biostatisticians working in late stage clinical development of medical products. It will also be especially helpful for statisticians in regulatory agencies, and medical research institutes. This book is comprehensive across the MRCT topic spectrum, including Issues regarding ICH E17 Implementation MRCT Design and Analysis Methodologies Perspectives from authorities in regulatory agencies, as well as statisticians practicing in the medical product industry Many examples of real-life applications based on actual MRCTs.

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition

Author: Shein-Chung Chow

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439870938

Category: Mathematics

Page: 481

View: 266

Focusing on an integral part of pharmaceutical development, Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research, Second Edition presents statistical procedures for performing sample size calculations during various phases of clinical research and development. It provides sample size formulas and procedures for testing equality, noninferiority/superiority, and equivalence. A comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical concepts and practical applications, this book highlights the interactions between clinicians and biostatisticians, includes a well-balanced summary of current and emerging clinical issues, and explores recently developed statistical methodologies for sample size calculation. Whenever possible, each chapter provides a brief history or background, regulatory requirements, statistical designs and methods for data analysis, real-world examples, future research developments, and related references. One of the few books to systematically summarize clinical research procedures, this edition contains new chapters that focus on three key areas of this field. Incorporating the material of this book in your work will help ensure the validity and, ultimately, the success of your clinical studies.

Clinical Trial Biostatistics and Biopharmaceutical Applications

Clinical Trial Biostatistics and Biopharmaceutical Applications

Author: Walter R. Young

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781482212181

Category: Mathematics

Page: 582

View: 341

Since 1945, "The Annual Deming Conference on Applied Statistics" has been an important event in the statistics profession. In Clinical Trial Biostatistics and Biopharmaceutical Applications, prominent speakers from past Deming conferences present novel biostatistical methodologies in clinical trials as well as up-to-date biostatistical applications from the pharmaceutical industry. Divided into five sections, the book begins with emerging issues in clinical trial design and analysis, including the roles of modeling and simulation, the pros and cons of randomization procedures, the design of Phase II dose-ranging trials, thorough QT/QTc clinical trials, and assay sensitivity and the constancy assumption in noninferiority trials. The second section examines adaptive designs in drug development, discusses the consequences of group-sequential and adaptive designs, and illustrates group sequential design in R. The third section focuses on oncology clinical trials, covering competing risks, escalation with overdose control (EWOC) dose finding, and interval-censored time-to-event data. In the fourth section, the book describes multiple test problems with applications to adaptive designs, graphical approaches to multiple testing, the estimation of simultaneous confidence intervals for multiple comparisons, and weighted parametric multiple testing methods. The final section discusses the statistical analysis of biomarkers from omics technologies, biomarker strategies applicable to clinical development, and the statistical evaluation of surrogate endpoints. This book clarifies important issues when designing and analyzing clinical trials, including several misunderstood and unresolved challenges. It will help readers choose the right method for their biostatistical application. Each chapter is self-contained with references.

Applied Statistics in Biomedicine and Clinical Trials Design

Applied Statistics in Biomedicine and Clinical Trials Design

Author: Zhen Chen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319126944

Category: Medical

Page: 546

View: 615

This volume is a unique combination of papers that cover critical topics in biostatistics from academic, government, and industry perspectives. The 6 sections cover Bayesian methods in biomedical research; Diagnostic medicine and classification; Innovative Clinical Trials Design; Modelling and Data Analysis; Personalized Medicine; and Statistical Genomics. The real world applications are in clinical trials, diagnostic medicine and genetics. The peer-reviewed contributions were solicited and selected from some 400 presentations at the annual meeting of the International Chinese Statistical Association (ICSA), held with the International Society for Biopharmaceutical Statistics (ISBS). The conference was held in Bethesda in June 2013, and the material has been subsequently edited and expanded to cover the most recent developments.

Principles and Practice of Clinical Trials

Principles and Practice of Clinical Trials

Author: Steven Piantadosi

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783319526362

Category: Mathematics

Page: 2573

View: 338

This is a comprehensive major reference work for our SpringerReference program covering clinical trials. Although the core of the Work will focus on the design, analysis, and interpretation of scientific data from clinical trials, a broad spectrum of clinical trial application areas will be covered in detail. This is an important time to develop such a Work, as drug safety and efficacy emphasizes the Clinical Trials process. Because of an immense and growing international disease burden, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies continue to develop new drugs. Clinical trials have also become extremely globalized in the past 15 years, with over 225,000 international trials ongoing at this point in time. Principles in Practice of Clinical Trials is truly an interdisciplinary that will be divided into the following areas: 1) Clinical Trials Basic Perspectives 2) Regulation and Oversight 3) Basic Trial Designs 4) Advanced Trial Designs 5) Analysis 6) Trial Publication 7) Topics Related Specific Populations and Legal Aspects of Clinical Trials The Work is designed to be comprised of 175 chapters and approximately 2500 pages. The Work will be oriented like many of our SpringerReference Handbooks, presenting detailed and comprehensive expository chapters on broad subjects. The Editors are major figures in the field of clinical trials, and both have written textbooks on the topic. There will also be a slate of 7-8 renowned associate editors that will edit individual sections of the Reference.

Handbook of Multiple Comparisons

Handbook of Multiple Comparisons

Author: Xinping Cui

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780429633881

Category: Mathematics

Page: 418

View: 463

Written by experts that include originators of some key ideas, chapters in the Handbook of Multiple Testing cover multiple comparison problems big and small, with guidance toward error rate control and insights on how principles developed earlier can be applied to current and emerging problems. Some highlights of the coverages are as follows. Error rate control is useful for controlling the incorrect decision rate. Chapter 1 introduces Tukey's original multiple comparison error rates and point to how they have been applied and adapted to modern multiple comparison problems as discussed in the later chapters. Principles endure. While the closed testing principle is more familiar, Chapter 4 shows the partitioning principle can derive confidence sets for multiple tests, which may become important as the profession goes beyond making decisions based on p-values. Multiple comparisons of treatment efficacy often involve multiple doses and endpoints. Chapter 12 on multiple endpoints explains how different choices of endpoint types lead to different multiplicity adjustment strategies, while Chapter 11 on the MCP-Mod approach is particularly useful for dose-finding. To assess efficacy in clinical trials with multiple doses and multiple endpoints, the reader can see the traditional approach in Chapter 2, the Graphical approach in Chapter 5, and the multivariate approach in Chapter 3. Personalized/precision medicine based on targeted therapies, already a reality, naturally leads to analysis of efficacy in subgroups. Chapter 13 draws attention to subtle logical issues in inferences on subgroups and their mixtures, with a principled solution that resolves these issues. This chapter has implication toward meeting the ICHE9R1 Estimands requirement. Besides the mere multiple testing methodology itself, the handbook also covers related topics like the statistical task of model selection in Chapter 7 or the estimation of the proportion of true null hypotheses (or, in other words, the signal prevalence) in Chapter 8. It also contains decision-theoretic considerations regarding the admissibility of multiple tests in Chapter 6. The issue of selected inference is addressed in Chapter 9. Comparison of responses can involve millions of voxels in medical imaging or SNPs in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chapter 14 and Chapter 15 provide state of the art methods for large scale simultaneous inference in these settings.

Designing Clinical Research

Designing Clinical Research

Author: Stephen B. Hulley

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 0781782104

Category: Medical

Page: 388

View: 753

This third edition sets the standard for providing a practical guide to planning, tabulating, formulating, and implementing clinical research, with an easy-to-read, uncomplicated presentation. This edition incorporates current research methodology and offers an updated syllabus for conducting a clinical research workshop.