As telescopes, detectors, and computers grow ever more powerful, the volume of data at the disposal of astronomers and astrophysicists will enter the petabyte domain, providing accurate measurements for billions of celestial objects. This book provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the cutting-edge statistical methods needed to efficiently analyze complex data sets from astronomical surveys such as the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, the Dark Energy Survey, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. It serves as a practical handbook for graduate students and advanced undergraduates in physics and astronomy, and as an indispensable reference for researchers. Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy presents a wealth of practical analysis problems, evaluates techniques for solving them, and explains how to use various approaches for different types and sizes of data sets. For all applications described in the book, Python code and example data sets are provided. The supporting data sets have been carefully selected from contemporary astronomical surveys (for example, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and are easy to download and use. The accompanying Python code is publicly available, well documented, and follows uniform coding standards. Together, the data sets and code enable readers to reproduce all the figures and examples, evaluate the methods, and adapt them to their own fields of interest. Describes the most useful statistical and data-mining methods for extracting knowledge from huge and complex astronomical data sets Features real-world data sets from contemporary astronomical surveys Uses a freely available Python codebase throughout Ideal for students and working astronomers
"As telescopes, detectors, and computers grow ever more powerful, the volume of data at the disposal of astronomers and astrophysicists will enter the petabyte domain, providing accurate measurements for billions of celestial objects. This book provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the cutting-edge statistical methods needed to efficiently analyze complex data sets from astronomical surveys such as the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, the Dark Energy Survey, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. It serves as a practical handbook for graduate students and advanced undergraduates in physics and astronomy, and as an indispensable reference for researchers. The updates in this new edition will include fixing "code rot," correcting errata, and adding some new sections. In particular, the new sections include new material on deep learning methods, hierarchical Bayes modeling, and approximate Bayesian computation. Statistics, Data Mining, and Machine Learning in Astronomy presents a wealth of practical analysis problems, evaluates techniques for solving them, and explains how to use various approaches for different types and sizes of data sets. For all applications described in the book, Python code and example data sets are provided. The supporting data sets have been carefully selected from contemporary astronomical surveys (for example, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and are easy to download and use. The accompanying Python code is publicly available, well documented, and follows uniform coding standards. Together, the data sets and code enable readers to reproduce all the figures and examples, evaluate the methods, and adapt them to their own fields of interest"--
Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy documents numerous successful collaborations among computer scientists, statisticians, and astronomers who illustrate the application of state-of-the-art machine learning and data mining techniques in astronomy. Due to the massive amount and complexity of data in most scientific disciplines, the material discussed in this text transcends traditional boundaries between various areas in the sciences and computer science. The book’s introductory part provides context to issues in the astronomical sciences that are also important to health, social, and physical sciences, particularly probabilistic and statistical aspects of classification and cluster analysis. The next part describes a number of astrophysics case studies that leverage a range of machine learning and data mining technologies. In the last part, developers of algorithms and practitioners of machine learning and data mining show how these tools and techniques are used in astronomical applications. With contributions from leading astronomers and computer scientists, this book is a practical guide to many of the most important developments in machine learning, data mining, and statistics. It explores how these advances can solve current and future problems in astronomy and looks at how they could lead to the creation of entirely new algorithms within the data mining community.
This book introduces a variety of advanced machine learning approaches covering the areas of neural networks, fuzzy logic, and hybrid intelligent systems for the determination and diagnosis of cancer. Moreover, the tactical solutions of machine learning have proved its vast range of significance and, provided novel solutions in the medical field for the diagnosis of disease. This book also explores the distinct deep learning approaches that are capable of yielding more accurate outcomes for the diagnosis of cancer. In addition to providing an overview of the emerging machine and deep learning approaches, it also enlightens an insight on how to evaluate the efficiency and appropriateness of such techniques and analysis of cancer data used in the cancer diagnosis. Therefore, this book focuses on the recent advancements in the machine learning and deep learning approaches used in the diagnosis of different types of cancer along with their research challenges and future directions for the targeted audience including scientists, experts, Ph.D. students, postdocs, and anyone interested in the subjects discussed.
This comprehensive guide to Bayesian methods in astronomy enables hands-on work by supplying complete R, JAGS, Python, and Stan code, to use directly or to adapt. It begins by examining the normal model from both frequentist and Bayesian perspectives and then progresses to a full range of Bayesian generalized linear and mixed or hierarchical models, as well as additional types of models such as ABC and INLA. The book provides code that is largely unavailable elsewhere and includes details on interpreting and evaluating Bayesian models. Initial discussions offer models in synthetic form so that readers can easily adapt them to their own data; later the models are applied to real astronomical data. The consistent focus is on hands-on modeling, analysis of data, and interpretations that address scientific questions. A must-have for astronomers, its concrete approach will also be attractive to researchers in the sciences more generally.
Machine learning methods are changing the way we design and discover new materials. This book provides an overview of approaches successfully used in addressing materials problems (alloys, ferroelectrics, dielectrics) with a focus on probabilistic methods, such as Gaussian processes, to accurately estimate density functions. The authors, who have extensive experience in this interdisciplinary field, discuss generalizations where more than one competing material property is involved or data with differing degrees of precision/costs or fidelity/expense needs to be considered.
The ideal text for a one-semester course in radio astronomy Essential Radio Astronomy is the only textbook on the subject specifically designed for a one-semester introductory course for advanced undergraduates or graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics. It starts from first principles in order to fill gaps in students' backgrounds, make teaching easier for professors who are not expert radio astronomers, and provide a useful reference to the essential equations used by practitioners. This unique textbook reflects the fact that students of multiwavelength astronomy typically can afford to spend only one semester studying the observational techniques particular to each wavelength band. Essential Radio Astronomy presents only the most crucial concepts—succinctly and accessibly. It covers the general principles behind radio telescopes, receivers, and digital backends without getting bogged down in engineering details. Emphasizing the physical processes in radio sources, the book's approach is shaped by the view that radio astrophysics owes more to thermodynamics than electromagnetism. Proven in the classroom and generously illustrated throughout, Essential Radio Astronomy is an invaluable resource for students and researchers alike. The only textbook specifically designed for a one-semester course in radio astronomy Starts from first principles Makes teaching easier for astronomy professors who are not expert radio astronomers Emphasizes the physical processes in radio sources Covers the principles behind radio telescopes and receivers Provides the essential equations and fundamental constants used by practitioners Supplementary website includes lecture notes, problem sets, exams, and links to interactive demonstrations An online illustration package is available to professors
Knowledge Discovery in Big Data from Astronomy and Earth Observation: Astrogeoinformatics bridges the gap between astronomy and geoscience in the context of applications, techniques and key principles of big data. Machine learning and parallel computing are increasingly becoming cross-disciplinary as the phenomena of Big Data is becoming common place. This book provides insight into the common workflows and data science tools used for big data in astronomy and geoscience. After establishing similarity in data gathering, pre-processing and handling, the data science aspects are illustrated in the context of both fields. Software, hardware and algorithms of big data are addressed. Finally, the book offers insight into the emerging science which combines data and expertise from both fields in studying the effect of cosmos on the earth and its inhabitants. Addresses both astronomy and geosciences in parallel, from a big data perspective Includes introductory information, key principles, applications and the latest techniques Well-supported by computing and information science-oriented chapters to introduce the necessary knowledge in these fields
This volume contains a selection of chapters based on papers to be presented at the Fifth Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy Symposium. The symposium will be held June 13-15th at Penn State University. Modern astronomical research faces a vast range of statistical issues which have spawned a revival in methodological activity among astronomers. The Statistical Challenges in Modern Astronomy V conference will bring astronomers and statisticians together to discuss methodological issues of common interest. Time series analysis, image analysis, Bayesian methods, Poisson processes, nonlinear regression, maximum likelihood, multivariate classification, and wavelet and multiscale analyses are all important themes to be covered in detail. Many problems will be introduced at the conference in the context of large-scale astronomical projects including LIGO, AXAF, XTE, Hipparcos, and digitized sky surveys.
Mohamed Medhat Gaber “It is not my aim to surprise or shock you – but the simplest way I can summarise is to say that there are now in the world machines that think, that learn and that create. Moreover, their ability to do these things is going to increase rapidly until – in a visible future – the range of problems they can handle will be coextensive with the range to which the human mind has been applied” by Herbert A. Simon (1916-2001) 1Overview This book suits both graduate students and researchers with a focus on discovering knowledge from scienti c data. The use of computational power for data analysis and knowledge discovery in scienti c disciplines has found its roots with the re- lution of high-performance computing systems. Computational science in physics, chemistry, and biology represents the rst step towards automation of data analysis tasks. The rational behind the developmentof computationalscience in different - eas was automating mathematical operations performed in those areas. There was no attention paid to the scienti c discovery process. Automated Scienti c Disc- ery (ASD) [1–3] represents the second natural step. ASD attempted to automate the process of theory discovery supported by studies in philosophy of science and cognitive sciences. Although early research articles have shown great successes, the area has not evolved due to many reasons. The most important reason was the lack of interaction between scientists and the automating systems.
Machine learning allows computers to learn and discern patterns without actually being programmed. When Statistical techniques and machine learning are combined together they are a powerful tool for analysing various kinds of data in many computer science/engineering areas including, image processing, speech processing, natural language processing, robot control, as well as in fundamental sciences such as biology, medicine, astronomy, physics, and materials. Introduction to Statistical Machine Learning provides a general introduction to machine learning that covers a wide range of topics concisely and will help you bridge the gap between theory and practice. Part I discusses the fundamental concepts of statistics and probability that are used in describing machine learning algorithms. Part II and Part III explain the two major approaches of machine learning techniques; generative methods and discriminative methods. While Part III provides an in-depth look at advanced topics that play essential roles in making machine learning algorithms more useful in practice. The accompanying MATLAB/Octave programs provide you with the necessary practical skills needed to accomplish a wide range of data analysis tasks. Provides the necessary background material to understand machine learning such as statistics, probability, linear algebra, and calculus. Complete coverage of the generative approach to statistical pattern recognition and the discriminative approach to statistical machine learning. Includes MATLAB/Octave programs so that readers can test the algorithms numerically and acquire both mathematical and practical skills in a wide range of data analysis tasks Discusses a wide range of applications in machine learning and statistics and provides examples drawn from image processing, speech processing, natural language processing, robot control, as well as biology, medicine, astronomy, physics, and materials.
Statistical Data Analytics Statistical Data Analytics Foundations for Data Mining, Informatics, and Knowledge Discovery A comprehensive introduction to statistical methods for data mining and knowledge discovery Applications of data mining and ‘big data’ increasingly take center stage in our modern, knowledge-driven society, supported by advances in computing power, automated data acquisition, social media development and interactive, linkable internet software. This book presents a coherent, technical introduction to modern statistical learning and analytics, starting from the core foundations of statistics and probability. It includes an overview of probability and statistical distributions, basics of data manipulation and visualization, and the central components of standard statistical inferences. The majority of the text extends beyond these introductory topics, however, to supervised learning in linear regression, generalized linear models, and classification analytics. Finally, unsupervised learning via dimension reduction, cluster analysis, and market basket analysis are introduced. Extensive examples using actual data (with sample R programming code) are provided, illustrating diverse informatic sources in genomics, biomedicine, ecological remote sensing, astronomy, socioeconomics, marketing, advertising and finance, among many others. Statistical Data Analytics: Focuses on methods critically used in data mining and statistical informatics. Coherently describes the methods at an introductory level, with extensions to selected intermediate and advanced techniques. Provides informative, technical details for the highlighted methods. Employs the open-source R language as the computational vehicle – along with its burgeoning collection of online packages – to illustrate many of the analyses contained in the book. Concludes each chapter with a range of interesting and challenging homework exercises using actual data from a variety of informatic application areas. This book will appeal as a classroom or training text to intermediate and advanced undergraduates, and to beginning graduate students, with sufficient background in calculus and matrix algebra. It will also serve as a source-book on the foundations of statistical informatics and data analytics to practitioners who regularly apply statistical learning to their modern data.