Stingless bees culture (Meliponiculture) in Kerala: hand book for farmers

Stingless bees culture (Meliponiculture) in Kerala: hand book for farmers

Author: Prem Jose Vazhacahrickal

Publisher: Amazon Publishers, USA

ISBN: 9781729237908

Category: Reference

Page: 74

View: 144

Stingless bees are highly social insects which populated the tropical earth 65 million years ago longer than honey bees. They are limited to tropics and subtropics lacking venom apparatus and cannot sting. Impacts of anthropogenic influences on honey bees were already reported. Recent studies also showed that the nesting behaviour of Trigona iridipennis Smith in natural habitat also vary due to interaction, pheromones and environmental stimulus. A little is reported so far about the various natural and domesticated nesting of the Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala. Trigona iridipennis Smith shows great diversity in plant selection for dietary as well as resin sources. The shift towards ornamental plants for foraging may be an adaptation evolved in response to human modification of the environment. The bees collect resin from a variety of sources for building nest, its maintenance and also for defence. This hand book deals with several aspect of Meliponiculture and various problems dealing with stingless bees in Kerala.

Meliponiculture around the globe: an overview of challenges and opportunities with a special focus to Kerala, India

Meliponiculture around the globe: an overview of challenges and opportunities with a special focus to Kerala, India

Author: Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

Publisher: Amazon Publishers, USA

ISBN: 9798677937286

Category: Education

Page:

View: 622

Stingless bees are highly social insects which populated the tropical earth 65 million years ago longer than honey bees. They are limited to tropics and subtropics lacking venom apparatus and cannot sting. Impacts of anthropogenic influences on honey bees were already reported. Recent studies also showed that the nesting behaviour of Trigona (Tetragonula) iridipennis Smith in natural habitat also vary due to interaction, pheromones and environmental stimulus. Trigona iridipennis Smith shows great diversity in plant selection for dietary as well as resin sources. The shift towards ornamental plants for foraging may be an adaptation evolved in response to human modification of the environment. The bees collect resin from a variety of sources for building nest, its maintenance and also for defence. Bee traffic is found to be related to time, season, and strength of the colony. The study also highlights the various food sources of Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala which can be further explored for flourishing meliponiculture.

Novel and Innovative Techniques in Meliponiculture in Kerala. the Current Status of Knowledge

Novel and Innovative Techniques in Meliponiculture in Kerala. the Current Status of Knowledge

Author: Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

Publisher: Grin Publishing

ISBN: 3668380058

Category:

Page:

View: 299

Scientific Study from the year 2016 in the subject Biology - Zoology, Mar Augusthinose College, language: English, abstract: Stingless bees are highly social insects which populated the tropical earth 65 million years ago longer than honey bees. They are limited to tropics and subtropics lacking venom apparatus and cannot sting. A little is reported so far about the domestication of the Trigona iridipennis Smith as well as the aspects of Meliponiculture in Kerala. Based on this back ground, the objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the various Meliponiculture techniques and management practices 2) the new techniques evolved for Meliponiculture practices and management as well as value addition of stingless bee products. Hundred and twenty farmers across Kerala engaged in Meliponiculture were interviewed and their Meliponiculture practices were observed and recorded. A questionnaire was prepared and distributed among the farmers to learn their depth of knowledge in stingless bee keeping techniques and to study the current status of Meliponiculture. In earthen bowl and coconut shell methods it is very advantageous to collect honey without causing any disturbance to the brood chamber that is at the bottom. In PVC pipe and coconut shell the colony often desert in summer due to high temperature. Even though the bamboo nodes are good, they are found to degenerate after a few years through the attack of wood borers. Stingless bee rearing is an important activity as it helps pollination and provides honey for various purposes. The bottle neck for Meliponiculture includes availability of colonies to start with, better techniques for colony capture, colony multiplication, honey extraction, processing and marketing. This study highlights the various drawbacks and flaws of traditional Meliponiculture in Kerala, which could be rectified using improved scientific management practices and tools. If correctly informed disseminated these techniques could be utilized b

Nesting behavior and habitats of the stingless bee Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala

Nesting behavior and habitats of the stingless bee Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala

Author: Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668366237

Category: Science

Page: 32

View: 483

Scientific Study from the year 2016 in the subject Biology - Miscellaneous, , language: English, abstract: Stingless bees are highly social insects which populated the tropical earth 65 million years ago and have been around much longer than honey bees. They are limited to the tropics and subtropics, lack a venom apparatus and cannot sting. Impacts of anthropogenic influences on honey bees have already been reported. Recent studies also showed that the nesting behaviour of Trigona iridipennis Smith in its natural habitat also varies due to interaction, pheromones and environmental stimulus. Little is reported so far about the various natural and domesticated nesting of the Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala. Based on thise background, our objectives of this study were to 1) to characterize the Meliponiculture 2) to identify the various natural habitats and domestication materials for nest construction and different types of nests used across Kerala. Various beekeeping methods preferred by farmers across Kerala for the cultivation of Trigona iridipennis Smith. Each nest has its own advantage and disadvantage. During the survey, the most preferred ones were wooden box. Even then according to the easy availability and production cost different nests like earthen pot, bamboo nodes, coconut shell, PVC pipes etc were used. The most preferred natural nesting sites by Trigona iridipennis Smith were mud/stone walls in our study. Being a social insect, Trigona iridipennis Smith shows great diversity in nesting pattern in natural habitats as well as anthropogenic habitats. The shift towards anthropogenic habitats than natural ones may be due to destruction of natural habitats as well as the availability of manmade habitats.

Biodiversity Conservation - Challenges for the Future

Biodiversity Conservation - Challenges for the Future

Author: Laladhas K.P.

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781681080215

Category: Nature

Page: 277

View: 990

Biodiversity Conservation - Challenges for the Future is a multidisciplinary book, linking topics on biodiversity, conservation, food and nutrition, organic farming, food security and sustainable management. The book summarizes the key ideas for meeting the challenges of biodiversity conservation. It presents suggestions and recommendations and reiterates the need for raising awareness among a range of stakeholders about conservation and sustainable management of biological resources and associated traditional knowledge resources along with ensuring appropriate capacity building at individual and institutional levels. The book also brings a wealth of knowledge about the local marine ecosystem and Western Ghats biodiversity. Readers will find an a overview of several aspects of biodiversity ranging from: a) The diversity of flora and fauna which will be of immense benefit to the local community. b) Laws and regulations related to access and benefits of sharing Bio-resources.(please check if the yellow highlighted term is correct) c) Sustainable management models for marine and wetland environmental conservation. d) Case studies of human participation in biodiversity conservation programmes. e) Key ideas for meeting the challenges of biodiversity conservation and for planning conservation programmes. Biodiversity Conservation - Challenges for the Future is a handy resource for the local conservationist community consisting of policy makers, academicians, scientists, environmentalists, students and grass root level conservationists.

Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

Author: K.P. Laladhas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319421629

Category: Science

Page: 322

View: 295

Divided into three sections, this book explores the three main pillars of sustainable development, namely economy, environment and society, and their interlinkages at the regional level. The first section, Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) for sustainable development, focuses on international agreements and national legislation, as well as the challenges in implementing ABS in e.g. India. In turn, the second section examines the process of forming Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) at the Local Self Government (LSG) level to promote environmental sustainability, highlighting local and community-level conservation initiatives that have led to the conservation of habitats and species. The third section addresses poverty eradication and food security. The case studies included demonstrate how the combination of traditional knowledge and modern techniques can enhance the productivity of traditional crop varieties, yielding greater benefits for communities. The aim of this volume is to disseminate the lessons learned from these case studies, as well as the findings from projects already in place, which can offer recommendations that can be applied to similar problems elsewhere in an attempt to find environmental solutions for sustainable development. Further, it introduces readers to new approaches to inclusive development, demonstrating that participation and grass root empowerment are key drivers of equitable and sustainable development.

Occurrence of a new type of stingless bee in Kerala. Evidence from morphometric analysis

Occurrence of a new type of stingless bee in Kerala. Evidence from morphometric analysis

Author: Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668371750

Category: Science

Page: 36

View: 949

Scientific Study from the year 2016 in the subject Biology - Zoology, , language: English, abstract: Stingless bees are limited to tropics and subtropics with diversity in species and share morphological and behaviour patterns. Stingless bees are major pollinators of flowering plants in the tropics and improve crop productivity. Trigona iridipennis Smith were kept in India for centuries for the high medicinal value of honey as well as propolis and bee wax. A wide range of variations, especially worker and drone body size and measurement, were reported. Morphometric and geometric analysis provide a valuable tool for the differentiating variations among various honey bees and stingless bees. Based on these back ground, our objectives of this study were 1) to characterize the morphometric aspects of workers in this reported new species of stingless bees and 2) to identify the various similarities and differences existing based on factor and principal component analysis with Trigona iridipennis Smith. A total of 30 samples of workers were collected and various morphometric characters including head length (HL), head width (HW), proboscis length (PL), distance between two dorsal ocelli/lower intercocular distance (DBO), dorsal ocello-ocular distance (DOOD), antennal length (AL), thorax femur length (TFL), thorax tibia length (TTL), thorax metatarsus length (TML), thorax metatarsus width (TMW), thorax forewing length (TFWL), thorax forewing width (TFWW), pterostigma width (PtStW), pterostigma length (PtStW), hind wing length (HWL), hind wing width (HWW), number of hamuli (HAM), abdominal tergite length (AbTL), abdominal sternum width (AbSW), mandible length (MdL) and mandible width (MdW), head length width ratio (HLW), thorax metatarsus length width ratio (TMLW) and thorax forewing length width ratio (TFWLW) were analyzed. One sample (SS1) showed distinct differences in habitat preference (Laterite rock), appearance (size and colour), behaviour (passive) and nest architecture (narrow round entrance tube, snow white brood, cream white food pots). The present study based on the morphometry of stingless bees across Kerala shows that, in spite of the morphological and behavioural variations exhibited by the bees, members of all samples belong to Trigona iridipennis. But one sample (SS1) shows entirely different morphometric characteristics. It was found that this sample belongs to genus Lisotrigona

Morphometric characterization of stingless bees (Trigona iridipennis Smith) in Kerala

Morphometric characterization of stingless bees (Trigona iridipennis Smith) in Kerala

Author: Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668371392

Category: Science

Page: 55

View: 894

Scientific Study from the year 2014 in the subject Biology - Zoology, , language: English, abstract: The major species of stingless bees in Kerala is Trigona iridipennis Smith which are easy to domesticate due to low temperament and easy adaption to various habitats. Little is known about the variations that exist among them. We therefore conducted morphometric studies among workers and drones across 14 districts in Kerala with a view to characterize them. A total of 188 and 71 samples of drones and workers collected and analyzed various morphometric characters including head length (HL), head width (HW), proboscis length (PL), distance between two dorsal ocelli/lower intercocular distance (DBO), dorsal ocello-ocular distance (DOOD), antennal length (AL), thorax femur length (TFL), thorax tibia length (TTL), thorax metatarsus length (TML), thorax metatarsus width (TMW), thorax forewing length (TFWL), thorax forewing width (TFWW), pterostigma width (PtStW), pterostigma length (PtStW), hind wing length (HWL), hind wing width (HWW), number of hamuli (HAM), abdominal tergite length (AbTL), abdominal sternum width (AbSW), mandible length (MdL) and mandible width (MdW), head length width ratio (HLW), thorax metatarsus length width ratio (TMLW) and thorax forewing length width ratio (TFWLW). Our studies revealed that most of the worker morhopometric characters were positively correlated across all the districts in Kerala. However, there is not much significant differences among drones across various districts. Based on our studies, even though we detected significant differences among worker morhphotmetry we could not to find distinguishing and remarkable differences among collected samples. They may be interpreted as nutritional, seasonal and climatic factors.

Swarming, drone movements, foraging behavior and associated plants of stingless bees (Trigona iridipennis Smith) in Kerala

Swarming, drone movements, foraging behavior and associated plants of stingless bees (Trigona iridipennis Smith) in Kerala

Author: Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668370692

Category: Science

Page: 52

View: 246

Scientific Study from the year 2014 in the subject Biology - Zoology, , language: English, abstract: Stingless bees are highly social insects which populated the tropical earth 65 million years ago longer than honey bees. They are limited to tropics and subtropics lacking venom apparatus and cannot sting. Impacts of anthropogenic influences on honey bees were already reported. Based on these back ground, the objectives of this study were to 1) to characterize the swarming and drone movements of Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala 2) to identify the foraging behaviour, colour preference and various plants associated with Trigona iridipennis Smith for nest construction as well as dietary sources. Feral as well as hived colonies of stingless bees were located and fixed at different parts of Kerala for observations on their foraging activity. Bee traffic was also measured during various timings across a bright sunny day in November 2013 and between colonies. Bee traffic among Trigona iridipennis Smith varied widely among the selected four colonies during various time intervals. In all the colonies bee traffic starts between 6 to 7 am and end by 7 to 7.10 pm. Bee traffic exhibited two peaks. One during 10 to 10.10 am and the other 2 to 3.10 pm. But in colony 4 the picture is different, where the morning peak was 11 to 11.10 am and the afternoon peak was 3 to 3.10 pm. Trigona iridipennis Smith shows great diversity in plant selection for dietary as well as resin sources. The shift towards ornamental plants for foraging may be an adaptation evolved in response to human modification of the environment. The bees collect resin from a variety of sources for building nest, its maintenance and also for defence. Bee traffic is found to be related to time, season, and strength of the colony. The bees preferred white and yellow coloured flowers than pink and red. The study also highlights the various food sources of Trigona iridipennis Smith in Kerala which can be further explored for flourishing melliponiculture.