Sugarcane exhibits all the major characteristics of a promising bioenergy crop including high biomass yield, C4 photosynthetic system, perennial nature, and ratooning ability. Being the largest agricultural commodity of the world with respect to total production, sugarcane biomass is abundantly available. Brazil has already become a sugarcane biofuels centered economy while Thailand, Colombia, and South Africa are also significantly exploiting this energy source. Other major cane producers include India, China, Pakistan, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, and the United States. It has been projected that sugarcane biofuels will be playing extremely important role in world’s energy matrix in recent future. This book analyzes the significance, applications, achievements, and future avenues of biofuels and bioenergy production from sugarcane, in top cane growing countries around the globe. Moreover, we also evaluate the barriers and areas of improvement for targeting efficient, sustainable, and cost-effective biofuels from sugarcane to meet the world’s energy needs and combat the climate change.
Sugarcane has garnered much interest for its potential as a viable renewable energy crop. While the use of sugar juice for ethanol production has been in practice for years, a new focus on using the fibrous co-product known as bagasse for producing renewable fuels and bio-based chemicals is growing in interest. The success of these efforts, and the development of new varieties of energy canes, could greatly increase the use of sugarcane and sugarcane biomass for fuels while enhancing industry sustainability and competitiveness. Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts examines the development of a suite of established and developing biofuels and other renewable products derived from sugarcane and sugarcane-based co-products, such as bagasse. Chapters provide broad-ranging coverage of sugarcane biology, biotechnological advances, and breakthroughs in production and processing techniques. This text brings together essential information regarding the development and utilization of new fuels and bioproducts derived from sugarcane. Authored by experts in the field, Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts is an invaluable resource for researchers studying biofuels, sugarcane, and plant biotechnology as well as sugar and biofuels industry personnel.
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. As the world’s energy hunger grows ever larger, fossil fuel reserves are diminishing—and concerns about climate change remind us that our love affair with fossil fuels cannot continue much longer. This has inspired intense research into sustainable energy sources. Biofuels seemed initially promising, but the world soon realized that food-based biofuel has its own dangers. Second-generation biofuels, however, use biomass from crops' inedible parts—such as the stalks and leaves of sugarcane—offering a far more practical, sustainable, and commercially viable solution. In this book, researchers from around the world review some of the most important and timely topics related to using sugarcane feedstock for biofuel. After a basic overview, topics such as these are included: Pretreatment methods The use of various microbial technologies, including bacteria and yeast, to enhance biofuel production Environmental impacts Economic feasibility The viability of electricity being produced side by side with biofuel Essential reading for graduate students and research scientists investigating second-generation biofuels, this book is also recommended for environmentalists, environmental engineers, and microbiologists.
The depletion of petroleum-derived fuel and environmental concerns have prompted many millennials to consider biofuels as alternative fuel sources. But completely replacing petroleum-derived fuels with biofuels is currently impossible in terms of production capacity and engine compatibility. Nevertheless, the marginal replacement of diesel with biofuel could delay the depletion of petroleum resources and abate the radical climate change caused by automotive pollutants. Energy security and climate change are the two major driving forces for worldwide biofuel development, and also have the potential to stimulate the agro-industry. The development of biofuels as alternative and renewable sources of energy has become critical in national efforts towards maximum self-reliance, the cornerstone of our energy security strategy. At the same time, the production of biofuels from various types of biomass such as plants, microbes, algae and fungi is now an ecologically viable and sustainable option. This book describes the biotechnological advances in biofuel production from various sources, while also providing essential information on the genetic improvement of biofuel sources at both the conventional and genomic level. These innovations and the corresponding methodologies are explained in detail.
The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into renewable fuels and other commodities has provided an appealing alternative towards supplanting global dependence on fossil fuels. The suitability of multitudes of plants for deconstruction to useful precursor molecules and products is currently being evaluated. These studies have probed a variety of phenotypic traits, including cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, lignin, and lignin monomer composition, glucose and xylose production following enzymatic hydrolysis, and an assessment of lignin-carbohydrate and lignin-lignin linkages, to name a few. These quintessential traits can provide an assessment of biomass recalcitrance, enabling researchers to devise appropriate deconstruction strategies. Plants with high polysaccharide and lower lignin contents have been shown to breakdown to monomeric sugars more readily. Not all plants contain ideal proportions of the various cell wall constituents, however. The capabilities of biotechnology can alleviate this conundrum by tailoring the chemical composition of plants to be more favorable for conversion to sugars, fuels, etc. Increases in the total biomass yield, cellulose content, or conversion efficiency through, for example, a reduction in lignin content, are pathways being evaluated to genetically improve plants for use in manufacturing biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Although plants have been previously domesticated for food and fiber production, the collection of phenotypic traits prerequisite for biofuel production may necessitate new genetic breeding schemes. Given the plethora of potential plants available for exploration, rapid analytical methods are needed to more efficiently screen through the bulk of samples to hone in on which feedstocks contain the desired chemistry for subsequent conversion to valuable, renewable commodities. The standard methods for analyzing biomass and related intermediates and finished products are laborious, potentially toxic, and/or destructive. They may also necessitate a complex data analysis, significantly increasing the experimental time and add unwanted delays in process monitoring, where delays can incur in significant costs. Advances in thermochemical and spectroscopic techniques have enabled the screening of thousands of plants for different phenotypes, such as cell-wall cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, and lignin composition, lignin monomer composition, or monomeric sugar release. Some instrumental methods have been coupled with multivariate analysis, providing elegant chemometric predictive models enabling the accelerated identification of potential feedstocks. In addition to the use of high-throughput analytical methods for the characterization of feedstocks based on phenotypic metrics, rapid instrumental techniques have been developed for the real-time monitoring of diverse processes, such as the efficacy of a specific pretreatment strategy, or the formation of end products, such as biofuels and biomaterials. Real-time process monitoring techniques are needed for all stages of the feedstocks-to-biofuels conversion process in order to maximize efficiency and lower costs by monitoring and optimizing performance. These approaches allow researchers to adjust experimental conditions during, rather than at the conclusion, of a process, thereby decreasing overhead expenses. This Frontiers Research Topic explores options for the modification of biomass composition and the conversion of these feedstocks into to biofuels or biomaterials and the related innovations in methods for the analysis of the composition of plant biomass, and advances in assessing up- and downstream processes in real-time. Finally, a review of the computational models available for techno-economic modeling and lifecycle analysis will be presented.
This book covers the present and future of bioethanol biorefinery technologies. It discusses the efficient use of feedstock in bioethanol production, and critically reviews the environmental sustainability of bioethanol production. In addition, it describes the integrated production of bioelectricity, biopolymers, organic acids, and other biomolecules, as well as the use of process-related liquid and solid byproducts and/or wastes during bioethanol generation. Since the bioethanol industry has also led the automotive industry to explore new avenues, this book summarizes the various aspects of ethanol motorization, hybrid engine development, and biofuel electrification. For decades, clean and renewable alternatives have been sought to reduce dependence on petroleum-based fossil fuels and CO2 emissions. Bioethanol appears as one of the best solutions for the production of biofuels, bioenergy and biochemicals, along with the establishment of new biorefinery concepts and a circular bioeconomy. Therefore, the ideas and technologies presented in this book contribute to the UN Sustainable Development Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy. This book is a useful reference for postgraduate students and researchers interested in biorefinery and biofuel technologies, both in academia- and commercial laboratories. Early career scientists can use it to fast track into the field. Advanced scientists will find it helpful to gain a broader overview of the field beyond their area of specialization.
This open access book presents a comprehensive analysis of biofuel use strategies from an interdisciplinary perspective using sustainability science. This interdisciplinary perspective (social science-natural science) means that the strategies and policy options proposed will have significant impacts on the economy and society alike. Biofuels are expected to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, revitalizing economies in agricultural communities and alleviating poverty. However, despite these anticipated benefits, international organizations such as the FAO, OECD and UN have published reports expressing concerns that biofuel promotion may lead to deforestation, water pollution and water shortages. The impacts of biofuel use are extensive, cross-sectoral and complex, and as such, comprehensive analyses are required in order to assess the extent to which biofuels can contribute to sustainable societies. Applying interdisciplinary sustainability science concepts and methodologies, the book helps to enhance the establishment of a sustainable society as well as the development of appropriate responses to a global need for urgent action on current issues related to biofuels.
The petroleum age began about 150 years ago. Easily available energy has s- ported major advances in agriculture, industry, transportation, and indeed many diverse activities valued by humans. Now world petroleum and natural gas s- plies have peaked and their supplies will slowly decline over the next 40–50 years until depleted. Although small amounts of petroleum and natural gas will remain underground, it will be energetically and economically impossible to extract. In the United States, coal supplies could be available for as long as 40–50 years, depending on how rapidly coal is utilized as a replacement for petroleum and natural gas. Having been comfortable with the security provided by fossil energy, especially petroleum and natural gas, we appear to be slow to recognize the energy crisis in the U. S. and world. Serious energy conservation and research on viable renewable - ergy technologies are needed. Several renewable energy technologies already exist, but sound research is needed to improve their effectiveness and economics. Most of the renewable energy technologies are in uenced by geographic location and face problems of intermittent energy supply and storage. Most renewable technologies require extensive land; a few researchers have even suggested that one-half of all land biomass could be harvested in order to supply the U. S. with 30% of its liquid fuel! Some optimistic investigations of renewable energy have failed to recognize that only 0. 1% of the solar energy is captured annually in the U. S.
This guide to investing in the bioenergy market covers the topic from both a scientific, economic and political perspective. It describes the increasing number of second generation biodiesel projects which are now emerging in anticipation of growing sustainability concerns by governments, and in response to market demands for improved process efficiencies and greater feedstock production yields. The book also closely examines the science and technology involved in second generation biofuels and gives concrete examples, such as in the aviation industry. The result is an essential guide for scientists, investors, politicians and decision-makers in the energy sector.
Industrial Enzymes for Biofuels Production: Recent Updates and Future Trends focuses on resolving existing bottlenecks in enzymes mediated biomass to biofuels production processes through updating recent scientific knowledge and technology developments. The book provides low cost sustainable approaches to lower the cost of enzymes production following different approaches. It is specifically focused on industrial aspects of enzymes used in biofuels production processes by presenting in-depth study of existing issues related to practical viability and long-term sustainability. The book covers detailed discussions on market scenario of industrial enzymes used in biofuels production processes and compares them on both lab and industrial scale. Users will find this to be a great resource that also helps them develop low cost green technologies for enzyme development in biofuels production. Includes recent updates in research and the technologies of industrial enzymes used in biofuels production process Describes various developed low-cost technologies for enzyme production Explores different, sustainable approaches currently being used
This comprehensive volume developed under the guidance of guest editors Prakash Lakshmanan and David Songstad features broad coverage of the topic of biofuels and its significance to the economy and to agriculture. These chapters were first published by In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology In Vitro Plant in 2009 and consists of 15 chapters from experts who are recognized both for their scientific accomplishments and global perspective in their assigned topics.
Biomass, Biochemicals, Biofuel: Climate Change Mitigation: Sequestration of Green House Gases is designed to not only give basic knowledge on the topics presented, but also to enlighten on conventional and advanced technologies, socioeconomic aspects, techno-economic feasibility, models and modeling tools, and detailed LCA approaches in the sequestration of GHGs for biofuel and biomaterials, including biopolymer production. These innovative technologies and novel prospective directly find applications in day-to-day practices. The book is a useful guide to politicians, researchers, teachers and waste management practitioners. It offers a treasure of knowledge to guide readers on the importance of GHGs sequestration in important areas. The issue of climate change is gaining much more attention by researchers, public, politicians and others. Climate change is one of the most complex issues the world is facing today. It has implications across society, including in science, technology, economics, society, politics, and moral and ethical dilemmas. Introduces appropriate technologies for GHG sequestration for biofuel and biomaterials production Presents the best available technologies for climate mitigation and examples from various geographical areas Evaluates technological systems to help users develop technically best and economically feasible projects Offers chemical looping mechanisms for the sequestration of green house gases for biofuel and biomaterials