Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages to people, the environment and the economy. Not surprisingly, governments currently enact powerful incentives for the development and exploitation of bio ethanol. However, every inch we come closer to this achievement, evokes more scepticism. Many questions are raised relating to whether sugar cane is really a sustainable solution. Still much is unknown about the net release of carbon dioxide and what the impacts of sugar cane expansion are on green house gas emissions. This book looks at the scientific base of the debate on sugar cane bio ethanol. Authors from Europe, Brazil and the USA capture many aspects of what is known and address assumptions while not denying that still much is unknown. It covers impacts on climate change, land use, sustainability and market demands. This publication discusses public policy impacts, technology developments, the fuel-food dilemma and the millennium development goals. This makes this publication unique and extremely relevant for policymakers, scientists and the private energy sector worldwide.
This book offers a broad understanding of bioethanol production from sugarcane, although a few other substrates, except corn, will also be mentioned. The 10 chapters are grouped in five sections. The Fuel Ethanol Production from Sugarcane in Brazil section consists of two chapters dealing with the first-generation ethanol Brazilian industrial process. The Strategies for Sugarcane Bagasse Pretreatment section deals with emerging physicochemical methods for biomass pretreatment, and the non-conventional biomass source for lignocellulosic ethanol production addresses the potential of weed biomass as alternative feedstock. In the Recent Approaches for Increasing Fermentation Efficiency of Lignocellulosic Ethanol section, potential and research progress using thermophile bacteria and yeasts is presented, taking advantage of microorganisms involved in consolidating or simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation processes. Finally, the Recent Advances in Ethanol Fermentation section presents the use of cold plasma and hydrostatic pressure to increase ethanol production efficiency. Also in this section the use of metabolic-engineered autotrophic cyanobacteria to produce ethanol from carbon dioxide is mentioned.
Sugarcane exhibits all the major characteristics of a promising bioenergy crop including high biomass yield, C4 photosynthetic system, perennial nature, and ratooning ability. Being the largest agricultural commodity of the world with respect to total production, sugarcane biomass is abundantly available. Brazil has already become a sugarcane biofuels centered economy while Thailand, Colombia, and South Africa are also significantly exploiting this energy source. Other major cane producers include India, China, Pakistan, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, and the United States. It has been projected that sugarcane biofuels will be playing extremely important role in world’s energy matrix in recent future. This book analyzes the significance, applications, achievements, and future avenues of biofuels and bioenergy production from sugarcane, in top cane growing countries around the globe. Moreover, we also evaluate the barriers and areas of improvement for targeting efficient, sustainable, and cost-effective biofuels from sugarcane to meet the world’s energy needs and combat the climate change.
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is considered one of the major bioenergy crops grown globally. Thus, sugarcane research to improve sustainable production worldwide is a vital task of the scientific community, to address the increasing demands and needs for their products, especially biofuels. In this context, this book covers the most recent research areas related to sugarcane production and its applications. It is composed of 14 chapters, divided into 5 sections that highlight fundamental insights into the current research and technology on this crop. Sugarcane: Technology and Research intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview in technology, production, and applied and basic research of this bioenergy species, approaching the latest developments on varied topics related to this crop.
The Physics of Energy provides a comprehensive and systematic introduction to the scientific principles governing energy sources, uses, and systems. This definitive textbook traces the flow of energy from sources such as solar power, nuclear power, wind power, water power, and fossil fuels through its transformation in devices such as heat engines and electrical generators, to its uses including transportation, heating, cooling, and other applications. The flow of energy through the Earth's atmosphere and oceans, and systems issues including storage, electric grids, and efficiency and conservation are presented in a scientific context along with topics such as radiation from nuclear power and climate change from the use of fossil fuels. Students, scientists, engineers, energy industry professionals, and concerned citizens with some mathematical and scientific background who wish to understand energy systems and issues quantitatively will find this textbook of great interest.
This volume features research and case studies across a variety of industries to showcase technological innovations and policy initiatives designed to promote renewable energy and sustainable economic development. The first section focuses on policies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, the second section covers the evaluation of energy efficiency programs and the final section provides evaluations of energy technology innovations. Environmental concerns, energy availability and political pressure have prompted governments to look for alternative energy resources that can minimize the undesirable effects for current energy systems. For example, shifting away from the conventional fuel resources and increasing the percentage of electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar and wind power, is an opportunity to guarantee lower CO2 emissions and to create better economic opportunities for citizens in the long run. Including discussions of such of timely topics and issues as global warming, bio-fuels and nuclear energy, the editors and contributors to this book provide a wealth of insights and recommendations for sustainable energy innovations.
Biofuels and food are dependent on the same resources for production: land, water, and energy. The conjuncture of food, energy, and climate crises demands a new direction in how to harness agriculture to the joint tasks of energy-saving, emissions reduction, and food security. Global Economic and Environmental Aspects of Biofuels focuses on the all-important question of the efficacy of biofuels as a solution to the global energy problem. Written by a distinguished team from five countries and multiple disciplines including agronomy, petroleum engineering, ecology, and meteorology, the book addresses the use of biofuels produced from crops and various organic materials as alternatives or supplements to petroleum. Key Features Discusses biofuels within the context of the world population problem, food, malnutrition, resource depletion, and climate change Asks the critical question whether the production of ethanol from corn, sugar cane, crop residues, and other organic materials has proven too costly in both economic and environmental terms Analyzes the uses and interdependencies among land, water, and fossil energy resources in food versus biofuel production Includes case studies on the economic and environmental impacts of biofuel production and use from the United States, Europe, Brazil, and tropical environments Explores the future production of biodiesel and ethanol from salt-water algae and tropical palms, while recognizing the technological problems that must be resolved in processing these materials This book examines key environmental and economic issues associated with the production of ethanol as a fuel, from corn, sugar cane, crop residues, and other organic materials. It brings together the opinions of a number of U.S. scientists and experts from Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Brazil, and highlights the remarkable agreement among the contributors on the pros and cons of biofuels as an answer to future petroleum shortages. This mix of contributors and opinions presents a well-rounded view of the subject that puts a spotlight on unresolved concerns and complexities that are often overlooked.
Global Bioethanol: Evolution, Risks, and Uncertainties explores the conceptual and methodological approaches for the understanding of bioethanol technologies, policies and future perspectives. After a decade of huge investments made by big companies and governments all around the world, it is time to talk about the real conditions in which bioethanol will (or will not) evolve. Uncertainties and certainties are discussed and addressed to understand the futures of global bioethanol. The book analyses the evolution of bioethanol in the world’s energy mix under technological, economic and commercial perspectives. It gives particular emphasis on the innovative trajectories of second-generation ethanol and their potential in different countries and regions. Future scenarios are proposed in order to evaluate the possible outcomes of ethanol in a global perspective. For providing a thorough overview of the bioethanol sector from different points of view, this book is a very useful resource for all involved with biofuels in general and bioethanol in particular, including energy engineers, researchers, consultants, analysts and policy makers. Presents a thorough examination of the uncertainties surrounding bioethanol in the future global energy mix Provides a data-driven and updated picture on the technological, economic, and market trends and scenarios for bioethanol Offers a foresight analysis on the perspectives of bioethanol as a global commodity Includes a prospective about who is going to lead the new trajectories in the global arena
Alcohol fuels must remain as an essential component for the realization of a sustainable low-carbon society. Use of locally available, under-utilized feedstock becomes important for local energy security as well as an option for distributed energy infrastructure. Utilizing the available feedstock that has not been properly regarded as a legitimate resource due to economic and social reasons should be the focal point in the search for possible resources for alcohol fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass and algal species are feedstocks that suit the purpose. This book can provide a brief introduction regarding the recent advances in the alcohol fuel field that is in constant challenge from recent issues on CO2, shale oil, power-to-gas, and hydrogen.
Increased trade integration holds considerable potential to stabilize food prices, boost returns to farmers, and reduce the prices faced by consumers. This book explores the effects of food price changes on economic welfare in developing countries, and how these can be mitigated through appropriate national policies at the border.
This four-volume set, edited by a leading expert in the field, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of renewable energy as a defined discipline. Some of the papers were first published many years ago, but they remain classics in their fields and retain their relevance to the understanding of current issues. The papers have been selected with the assistance of an eminent international editorial board. The set includes a general introduction and each volume is introduced by a new overview essay, placing the selected papers in context. The range of subject matter is considerable, including coverage of all the main renewable technologies, the fundamental principles by which they function, and the issues around their deployment such as planning, integration and socio-economic assessment. Overall, the set provides students, teachers and researchers, confronted with thousands of journal articles, book chapters and grey literature stretching back decades, with a ready-made selection of and commentary on the most important key writings in renewable energy. It will be an essential reference for libraries concerned with energy, technology and the environment.
Sugarcane has garnered much interest for its potential as a viable renewable energy crop. While the use of sugar juice for ethanol production has been in practice for years, a new focus on using the fibrous co-product known as bagasse for producing renewable fuels and bio-based chemicals is growing in interest. The success of these efforts, and the development of new varieties of energy canes, could greatly increase the use of sugarcane and sugarcane biomass for fuels while enhancing industry sustainability and competitiveness. Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts examines the development of a suite of established and developing biofuels and other renewable products derived from sugarcane and sugarcane-based co-products, such as bagasse. Chapters provide broad-ranging coverage of sugarcane biology, biotechnological advances, and breakthroughs in production and processing techniques. This text brings together essential information regarding the development and utilization of new fuels and bioproducts derived from sugarcane. Authored by experts in the field, Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts is an invaluable resource for researchers studying biofuels, sugarcane, and plant biotechnology as well as sugar and biofuels industry personnel.