The book describes the causes and effects of transient (water hammer) events in liquid-filled pipes, and describes how the powerful and stable Wave Plan Method (WPM) can be used to address transients during surge modeling. The authors compare and contrast WPM with the Method of Characteristics (MOC), which is the other widely-used surge analysis tool. While MOC can be useful for many situations, the larger and more complex a model becomes, the more the computational efficiency of WPM is necessary to avoid longer and longer analysis times. The authors also describe how WPM is more generalizable than MOC, which is a term that describes a suite of tools consisting of several variants that were developed to address different modeling situations. This book provides details on surge modeling in general and the use of WPM in particular. This includes pressure attenuation, determination of wave speeds in different pipe types and various liquid media, pump and turbine characteristics curves, and the effects of boundary conditions. The discussion of boundary conditions includes an extensive look at the effects of the air-water interface as it applies to bulk air intrusion into pipelines, and as it relates to the use of air/vacuum valves as surge protection. The authors discuss surge protection design for different real-world scenarios, and how to model of a full list of surge control devices, including a detailed discussion of check valves. Last, the book describes the assumptions and uncertainties encountered during data collection and model building, and examines the potential effect of these uncertainties. Where uncertainties cannot be mitigated, the authors discuss ways to increase the safety factor of surge protection designs.
Masters Theses in the Pure and Applied Sciences was first conceived, published, and dis· seminated by the Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS) *at Purdue University in 1957, starting its coverage of theses with the academic year 1955. Beginning with Volume 13, the printing and dissemination phases of the ac· tivity were transferred to University Microfilms/Xerox of Ann Arbor, Michigan, with the thought that such an arrangement would be more beneficial to the academic and general scientific and technical community. After five years of this joint undertaking we had concluded that it was in the interest of all concerned if the printing and distribution of the volume were handled by an international publishing house to assure improved service and broader dissemination. Hence, starting with Volume 18, Masters Theses in the Pure and Applied Sciences has been disseminated on a worldwide basis by Plenum Publishing Corporation of New York, and in the same year the coverage was broadened to include Canadian universities. All back issues can also be ordered from Plenum. We have reported in Volume 20 (thesis year 1975) a total of 10,374 theses titles from 28 Canadian and 239 United States universities. We are sure that this broader base for theses titles reported will greatly enhance the value of this important annual reference work. The organization of Volume 20 is identical to that of past years. It consists of theses titles arranged by discipline and by university within each discipline.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps portray the height and extent to which flooding is expected to occur, and they form the basis for setting flood insurance premiums and regulating development in the floodplain. As such, they are an important tool for individuals, businesses, communities, and government agencies to understand and deal with flood hazard and flood risk. Improving map accuracy is therefore not an academic question--better maps help everyone. Making and maintaining an accurate flood map is neither simple nor inexpensive. Even after an investment of more than $1 billion to take flood maps into the digital world, only 21 percent of the population has maps that meet or exceed national flood hazard data quality thresholds. Even when floodplains are mapped with high accuracy, land development and natural changes to the landscape or hydrologic systems create the need for continuous map maintenance and updates. Mapping the Zone examines the factors that affect flood map accuracy, assesses the benefits and costs of more accurate flood maps, and recommends ways to improve flood mapping, communication, and management of flood-related data.