The Biology of Alcoholism

The Biology of Alcoholism

Author: Henri Begleiter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461335205

Category: Science

Page: 635

View: 537

The previous volume, The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Psychosocial Factors, attempted to describe the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors that lead to the initiation and perpetuation of alcoholism. The preface to that volume presented our particular view of the bio-. psycho-social interaction as a progressive process in which earlier developments produce new pathogenetic mechanisms, which in turn lead to still other cyclical feedback activities. Although influences from each of the three phenomenologic levels are at work during each stage of the clinical course, it would appear that social factors are most significant in the early phase, psychological factors at the intermediate level, and biological ones toward the end. These differences are only relative, however, for influences of all three types surely are operative during all stages of the syndrome. This appears to be particularly true for the biological parameters of activity. Don Goodwin (1976), who has supplied much of the data that support the role of hereditary factors in alcoholism, is wont to say that all living behavior is biological-by definition. The operational evidence for this is perhaps more evident in alcoholism than in other syndromes. For example, the general social indifference of many Asians to alcohol may reflect the presence of an atypical isoenzyme of alcohol dehydrogenase rather than some independently derived cultural norm.

The Biology of Alcoholism

The Biology of Alcoholism

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1468442767

Category: Science

Page: 695

View: 892

Pathogenesis is defined in Blakiston's Medical Dictional), as "the course of development of disease, including the sequence of processes or events from inception to the characteristic lesion or disease. " The central position of the word "pathogenesis" in the titles of Volumes 6 and 7 in itself connotes a bias on the part of the editors in favor of the disease concept of alcoholism, inasmuch as the end product of the pathogenetic process is presumed to be a disease. But the disease model as here conceptualized is vastly different from that of Jellinek, or of Alcoholics Anonymous, or of psychoanalysis. In those theories, alcoholism is seen as the inevitable consequence of some specific flaw in the heredity or the experience of the afflicted individual that inexorably leads to alcoholism. In these present volumes, the alcoholic syndrome is viewed rather as the outgrowth of the interaction of a variety of biological, psychological, and social influences which, depending on the predom inance of one or another, may lead to different types of alcoholism. This view, which has been labeled the bio-psycho-social perspective, encompasses a larger view of the dynamics of the development of alcoholism, incorporating data from each of the phenomenologic levels involved. An additional complication arises from the fact that the physiolog ical and psychosocial stigmata of alcoholics, which are probably most often the result of prolonged drinking, frequently have come to be considered as causes of the disease.

The Biology of Alcoholism

The Biology of Alcoholism

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1468408976

Category: Psychology

Page: 552

View: 660

Alcoholism is a uniquely human condition. Although some forms of alcohol dependence can be induced experimentally in a variety of laboratory animals, the complete spectrum of alcoholism with all of its physical, psychological, and social implications occurs only in man. The special quality of this relationship becomes more significant when one considers that the manifestations of most physical disease syndromes in animals and man are more similar than they are different. The uniqueness of alcoholism lies in the fact that it is one of the few physical diseases which reflects at all levels the problems of individuals coping with the complexities of human society. In order to present a more coherent picture of these complex relationships, we have attempted to impose a logical sequence upon the material. This sequence lies along a dual parameter-from the physical to the social and from the theor etical to the empirical. Consequently, it was natural for the first volume in this series to deal with biochemistry, the most basic and physical aspect of the inter action of alcohol and man. It is equally natural for this, the second volume, to deal with physiology and behavior, for these levels of phenomenology-partic ularly the latter-are already more empirical and psychological in their mani festations. Finally, the third volume, clinical pathology, describes the disease itself, with all of the medical and social implications carried in the word "alcoholism.

Social Aspects of Alcoholism

Social Aspects of Alcoholism

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0306371146

Category: Social Science

Page: 682

View: 360

The first three volumes of this series have dealt with materials which generally justify the title, The Biology of Alcoholism. This is only remotely true of the present volume, Social Aspects of Alcoholism, or of the final volume to come, Treatment and Rehabilitation. Except for small portions of the treatment section which involve pharmacotherapy, much of these last two volumes deals with the psychological aspects of alcoholism and still more with the social. It is interesting to review the evolution of this new pattern over the past seven years, a pattern which, had it existed initially, would have resulted, if not in a dif ferent format, at least in a different title. Our initial selection of areas to be covered was influenced by our desire to present as "hard" data as possible, in an attempt to lend a greater aura of scientific rigor to a field which was generally considered as "soft. " When we completed our review of this material in volumes 1-3, we recognized that what we might have gained in rigor, we had more than lost in completeness. These volumes presented a picture of a biological disease syndrome for which the remedies and preventive measures were presumably also biological. And yet, most workers in the field readily accept the significant contributions of psychological and social factors to the pathogenesis and treatment of alcoholism.

The Biology of Alcoholism

The Biology of Alcoholism

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468429374

Category: Psychology

Page: 674

View: 569

In this volume, the third of our series, the emphasis has shifted from the theoretical and experimental to the more clinical and practical aspects of alcoholism. Where, in the earlier volumes, more attention was directed to animal than human studies, in this volume, almost all material deals with the human condition. The clinical manifestations of alcoholism may be divided into two major aspects, that of the disease itself and that of its complications. This separation is to some extent artificial since, in a sense, the natural history of the disease is a function of the development of certain complicating mechanisms. These mechanisms in turn either become part and parcel of the underlying condition -alcoholism-or give rise to a new set of clinical variables characterized as "medical complications. " At this point, the dichotomy becomes real. The disease alcoholism tends to be seen as a distinct psychosocial entity and to be treated with psychosocial techniques. The "medical complications" are more clearly envisioned as being within the legitimate domain of medical practice and are treated by physicians who often tend to ignore the underlying alcoholism. The "patient" is sometimes lost in between. The major thrust of this volume is an attempt to describe the mechanisms of alcoholism as they are now known, in such a way as to establish a continuum between the disease alcoholism and its "medical complications.

Social Aspects of Alcoholism

Social Aspects of Alcoholism

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0306371146

Category: Social Science

Page: 680

View: 702

The first three volumes of this series have dealt with materials which generally justify the title, The Biology of Alcoholism. This is only remotely true of the present volume, Social Aspects of Alcoholism, or of the final volume to come, Treatment and Rehabilitation. Except for small portions of the treatment section which involve pharmacotherapy, much of these last two volumes deals with the psychological aspects of alcoholism and still more with the social. It is interesting to review the evolution of this new pattern over the past seven years, a pattern which, had it existed initially, would have resulted, if not in a dif ferent format, at least in a different title. Our initial selection of areas to be covered was influenced by our desire to present as "hard" data as possible, in an attempt to lend a greater aura of scientific rigor to a field which was generally considered as "soft. " When we completed our review of this material in volumes 1-3, we recognized that what we might have gained in rigor, we had more than lost in completeness. These volumes presented a picture of a biological disease syndrome for which the remedies and preventive measures were presumably also biological. And yet, most workers in the field readily accept the significant contributions of psychological and social factors to the pathogenesis and treatment of alcoholism.

The Biology of Alcoholism

The Biology of Alcoholism

Author: Benjamin Kissin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: UOM:39015003240531

Category: Psychology

Page: 594

View: 791

Alcoholism is a uniquely human condition. Although some forms of alcohol dependence can be induced experimentally in a variety of laboratory animals, the complete spectrum of alcoholism with all of its physical, psychological, and social implications occurs only in man. The special quality of this relationship becomes more significant when one considers that the manifestations of most physical disease syndromes in animals and man are more similar than they are different. The uniqueness of alcoholism lies in the fact that it is one of the few physical diseases which reflects at all levels the problems of individuals coping with the complexities of human society. In order to present a more coherent picture of these complex relationships, we have attempted to impose a logical sequence upon the material. This sequence lies along a dual parameter-from the physical to the social and from the theor etical to the empirical. Consequently, it was natural for the first volume in this series to deal with biochemistry, the most basic and physical aspect of the inter action of alcohol and man. It is equally natural for this, the second volume, to deal with physiology and behavior, for these levels of phenomenology-partic ularly the latter-are already more empirical and psychological in their mani festations. Finally, the third volume, clinical pathology, describes the disease itself, with all of the medical and social implications carried in the word "alcoholism.

Genetics and Biology of Alcoholism

Genetics and Biology of Alcoholism

Author: C. Robert Cloninger

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015019408825

Category: Medical

Page: 410

View: 184

These proceedings from the conference of Fall 1989, evaluate the obstacles and challenges of searching for the specific genes influencing risk of alcoholism. Coverage includes genetic and environmental risk factors, neurobiological markers of risk, animal models and candidate genes for alcoholism, a