The central concern of this title, first published in 1994, is the syntactic nature of negation in Universal Grammar, and its relation to other functional elements in the Syntax. The study argues that negation is not a syntactic category on its own; rather, it is one of the values of a more abstract syntactic category, named Σ, which includes other sentence operators, such as affirmation and emphasis. This title will be of interest to students of language and linguistics.
The first comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects, chosen for their distinction. Based upon natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria and Kuwait, this study takes an analytical approach, combining insights from discourse analysis, language typology and pragmatics.
An extended argument for a syntactic view of NEG raising with consequences for the syntax of negation and negative polarity items. In this book, Chris Collins and Paul Postal consider examples such the one below on the interpretation where Nancy thinks that this course is not interesting: Nancy doesn't think this course is interesting. They argue such examples instantiate a kind of syntactic raising that they term Classical NEG Raising. This involves the raising of a NEG (negation) from the embedded clause to the matrix clause. Collins and Postal develop three main arguments to support their claim. First, they show that Classical NEG Raising obeys island constraints. Second, they document that a syntactic raising analysis predicts both the grammaticality and particular properties of what they term Horn clauses (named for Laurence Horn, who discovered them). Finally, they argue that the properties of certain parenthetical structures strongly support the syntactic character of Classical NEG Raising. Collins and Postal also offer a detailed analysis of the main argument in the literature against a syntactic raising analysis (which they call the Composed Quantifier Argument). They show that the facts appealed to in this argument not only fail to conflict with their approach but actually support a syntactic view. In the course of their argument, Collins and Postal touch on a variety of related topics, including the syntax of negative polarity items, the status of sequential negation, and the scope of negative quantifiers.
Negation is a central feature of language and cognition, interacting with all areas of grammar as well as with the philosophy of language. Whereas there is a cross-linguistic uniformity in logical and semantic aspects of negation, there is a diversity of syntactic and morphological forms and rules. This asymmetry in function and form poses problems for syntactic and universal grammar theory and for the study of the interface between syntax and discourse. It is particularly evident in negative polarity–words and phrases which can appear only in negative sentences. The exploration of negation and negative polarity phenomena and their implications for linguistic theory are the main themes of this book.
This new edition of "Syntax: A functional-typological introduction" is at many points radically revised. In the previous edition (1984) the author deliberately chose to de-emphasize the more formal aspects of syntactic structure, in favor of a more comprehensive treatment of the semantic and pragmatic correlates of syntactic structure. With hindsight the author now finds the de-emphasis of the formal properties a somewhat regrettable choice, since it creates the false impression that one could somehow be a functionalist without being at the same time a structuralist. To redress the balance, explicit treatment is given to the core formal properties of syntactic constructions, such as constituency and hierarchy (phrase structure), grammatical relations and relational control, clause union, finiteness and governed constructions. At the same time, the cognitive and communicative underpinning of grammatical universals are further elucidated and underscored, and the interplay between grammar, cognition and neurology is outlined. Also the relevant typological database is expanded, now exploring in greater precision the bounds of syntactic diversity. Lastly, Syntax treats synchronic-typological diversity more explicitly as the dynamic by-product of diachronic development or grammaticalization. In so doing a parallel is drawn between linguistic diversity and diachrony on the one hand and biological diversity and evolution on the other. It is then suggested that as in biology synchronic universals of grammar are exercised and instantiated primarily as constraints on development, and are thus merely the apparent by-products of universal constraints on grammaticalization.
This book presents a novel overarching account of negation and negative dependencies, based on novel data from language variation, language acquisition, and language change. Negation is a universal property of natural language, but languages can significantly differ in how they express it: there is variation in the form and position of negative elements, the number of manifestations of negative morphemes, and in the restrictions on the use of Negative and Positive Polarity Items. In this volume, Hedde Zeijlstra explores the hypothesis that all known syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and lexical ways of encoding dependencies should be also be attested in the domain of negation, unless they are independently ruled out. He shows that the pluriform landscape of negative dependencies and markers of negation that emerges has broader implications for theories of syntax and semantics and their interface.
Negation ist eine universelle Eigenschaft der menschlichen Sprache. Als primäre Disziplin der Logik tritt Negation in typologisch unterschiedlichsten Erscheinungsformen auf und spielt eine große Rolle für die Syntax-Semantik-Schnittstelle. Mit diesem Band soll die umfassende Forschungsliteratur zur Negation durch eine Reihe von aktuellen Studien ergänzt werden. Alle Beiträge beziehen sich auf Fragen oder Kontroversen, die sich mit der Syntax, Semantik und Variation negativer Elemente befassen, und gehen von der Annahme aus, dass ein grundlegendes Verständnis der verschiedenen Realisierungen der Negation zentral für unser Grammatikverständnis ist. Die hier veröffentlichten Beiträge berücksichtigen verschiedene Herangehensweisen und eine Vielfalt empirischer und analytischer Details. Negation is a universal feature of human language that is inherently logical in nature, presents typologically diverse manifestations, and plays a fundamental role in the mapping between syntactic structure and semantic interpretation. The aim of this volume is to complement the vast body of research literature by offering a set of cutting-edge studies on negation. All the contributions are related to recent questions bearing on the syntax and semantics of negative elements and the variation in their form, and follow the central assumption that a proper understanding of the multifaceted expression of negation is central to our understanding of the grammar as a whole. With this in mind, different approaches and a variety of empirical and analytic details have been included in this volume.
This is the first full-length study of sentential negation phenomena in French. Paul Rowlett assesses, from a generative perspective, the respective contribution made to the expression of clausal polarity by ne, pas, and elements such as jamais and personne. His conclusions have far-reaching implications, leading to the controversial hypothesis that, despite widespread belief, French is not a negative concord language.
The researchers in the field of theoretical and theoretically inclined descriptive linguistics have for a long time felt a need for detailed and clearly presented linguistic treatments of various syntactic phenomena in South Asian languages. Clause Structure in South Asian Languages: provides a comprehensive overview and covers major aspects of clause structure in a variety of South Asian languages; provides detailed analyses of several aspects of phrase structure of many prominent South Asian languages; gives theoretically up-to-date treatment of several important issues in South Asian syntax and semantics; contains papers by some of the most prominent linguists working on South Asian languages.
This book is a guide to the development of English syntax between the Old and Modern periods. Beginning with an overview of the main features of early English syntax, it gives a unified account of the significant grammatical changes that occurred during this period. Four leading experts demonstrate how these changes can be explained in terms of grammatical theory and the theory of language acquisition. Drawing on a wealth of empirical data, the book covers a wide range of topics including changes in word order, infinitival constructions and grammaticalization processes.