In the first century after its discovery, the electron has come to be a fundamental element in the analysis of physical aspects of nature. This book is devoted to the construction of a deductive theory of the electron, starting from first principles and using a simple mathematical tool, geometric analysis. Its purpose is to present a comprehensive theory of the electron to the point where a connection can be made with the main approaches to the study of the electron in physics. The introduction describes the methodology. Chapter 2 presents the concept of space-time-action relativity theory and in chapter 3 the mathematical structures describing action are analyzed. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 deal with the theory of the electron in a series of aspects where the geometrical analysis is more relevant. Finally in chapter 7 the form of geometrical analysis used in the book is presented to elucidate the broad range of topics which are covered and the range of mathematical structures which are implicitly or explicitly included. The book is directed to two different audiences of graduate students and research scientists: primarily to theoretical physicists in the field of electron physics as well as those in the more general field of quantum mechanics, elementary particle physics, and general relativity; secondly, to mathematicians in the field of geometric analysis.

Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even then, practical applications for electricity were few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. When you have completed this book, you should be able to describe the principles of electron flow, static electricity, conductors, and insulators and discuss basic electrical concepts and principles of magnetism.

This volume shows how collective magnetic excitations determine most of the magnetic properties of itinerant electron magnets. Previous theories were mainly restricted to the Curie-Weiss law temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibilities. Based on the spin amplitude conservation idea including the zero-point fluctuation amplitude, this book shows that the entire temperature and magnetic field dependence of magnetization curves, even in the ground state, is determined by the effect of spin fluctuations. It also shows that the theoretical consequences are largely in agreement with many experimental observations. The readers will therefore gain a new comprehensive perspective of their unified understanding of itinerant electron magnetism.

This book, in the broadest sense, is an application of quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics to the field of magnetism. Under certain well described circumstances, an immensely large number of electrons moving in the solid state of matter will collectively produce permanent magnetism. Permanent magnets are of fundamental interest, and magnetic materials are also of great practical importance as they provide a large field of technological applications. The physical details describing the many electron problem of magnetism are presented in this book on the basis of the local density functional approximation. The emphasis is on realistic magnets, for which the equations describing the many electron problem can only be solved by using computers. The great, recent and continuing improvements of computers are, to a large extent, responsible for the progress in the field. Along with a detailed introduction to the density functional theory, this book presents representative computational methods and provides the reader with a complete computer programme for the determination of the electronic structure of a magnet on a PC. A large part of the book is devoted to a detailed treatment of the connections between electronic properties and magnetism, and how they differ in the various known magnetic systems. Current trends are exposed and explained for a large class of alloys and compounds. The modern field of artificially layered systems - known as multilayers - and their industrial applications are dealt with in detail. Finally, an attempt is made to relate the rich thermodynamic properties of magnets to the ab initio results originating from the electronic structure.

The theory of the inhomogeneous electron gas had its origin in the Thomas Fermi statistical theory, which is discussed in the first chapter of this book. This already leads to significant physical results for the binding energies of atomic ions, though because it leaves out shell structure the results of such a theory cannot reflect the richness of the Periodic Table. Therefore, for a long time, the earlier method proposed by Hartree, in which each electron is assigned its own personal wave function and energy, dominated atomic theory. The extension of the Hartree theory by Fock, to include exchange, had its parallel in the density description when Dirac showed how to incorporate exchange in the Thomas-Fermi theory. Considerably later, in 1951, Slater, in an important paper, showed how a result similar to but not identical with that of Dirac followed as a simplification of the Hartree-Fock method. It was Gombas and other workers who recognized that one could also incorporate electron correlation consistently into the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory by using uniform electron gas relations locally, and progress had been made along all these avenues by the 1950s.

The authors aim to hone the theory of electron-atom and electron-ion collisions by developing mathematical equations and comparing their results to the wealth of recent experimental data. This first of three parts focuses on potential scattering, and will serve as an introduction to many of the concepts covered in Parts II and III. As these processes occur in so many of the physical sciences, researchers in astrophysics, atmospheric physics, plasma physics, and laser physics will all benefit from the monograph.

The case of an inhomogeneous electron gas within which the density variation is significant over a spatial range of the order of a Fermi wave-length is considered in this report. It is seen that for most systems of physical interest, this sort of non-uniformity is a result of diffraction effects. This is a fundamentally different phenomenon than can reasonably be treated by the density gradient method of Kohn for slowly varying inhomogeneous electron gases. Several sample cases are treated. The first considerations are directed towards the problem of a weak periodic potential in an interacting electron gas. The momentum-dependent self-energy is calculated for an electron propagating in the many-body medium of an electron gas plus a periodic lattice pseudo-potential. This is the equivalent of a quasi-particle energy spectrum and thus an orthogonalized plane wave energy band. It does not appear that the lattice drastically changes qualitative aspects of plane wave many-body theory. A dielectric formulation for a general inhomogeneous electron gas is presented. By introducing a new image technique, the dielectric function within the random phase approximation, which is valid in the surface region of an electron gas, is obtained. A Green's function formalism is developed for treating the static dielectric screening of a point impurity in an electron gas. The surface dielectric function is used with the impurity screening formalism to treat the problem of impurity screening in the surface region. This is an idealized model of ionic adsorption on metal surface. Screening charge densities resulting from volume polarization effects are calculated. From these results, it is seen why unjustifiable application of classical image forces in previous adsorption theories has fortunately produced reasonable results. A new method for obtaining the appropriate plasmon contribution to the electron self-energy in the surface region is developed. With these results, the electron gas surface potentials calculated by Loucks and Cutler are then improved.

The authors aim to hone the theory of electron-atom and electron-ion collisions by developing mathematical equations and comparing their results to the wealth of recent experimental data. This first of three parts focuses on potential scattering, and will serve as an introduction to many of the concepts covered in Parts II and III. As these processes occur in so many of the physical sciences, researchers in astrophysics, atmospheric physics, plasma physics, and laser physics will all benefit from the monograph.