Transcendental Curves in the Leibnizian Calculus

Transcendental Curves in the Leibnizian Calculus

Author: Viktor Blasjo

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128132982

Category: Mathematics

Page: 282

View: 816

Transcendental Curves in the Leibnizian Calculus analyzes the mathematical and philosophical conflict between Euclidean and Cartesian mathematics. For millennia, mathematical meaning and ontology had been anchored in geometrical constructions, as epitomized by Euclid's ruler and compass. As late as 1637, Descartes had placed himself squarely in this tradition when he justified his new technique of identifying curves with equations by means of certain curve-tracing instruments, thereby bringing together the ancient constructive tradition and modern algebraic methods in a satisfying marriage. But rapid advances in the new fields of infinitesimal calculus and mathematical mechanics soon ruined his grand synthesis. Descartes's scheme left out transcendental curves, i.e. curves with no polynomial equation, but in the course of these subsequent developments such curves emerged as indispensable. It was becoming harder and harder to juggle cutting-edge mathematics and ancient conceptions of its foundations at the same time, yet leading mathematicians, such as Leibniz felt compelled to do precisely this. The new mathematics fit more naturally an analytical conception of curves than a construction-based one, yet no one wanted to betray the latter, as this was seen as virtually tantamount to stop doing mathematics altogether. The credibility and authority of mathematics depended on it. Brings to light this underlying and often implicit complex of concerns that permeate early calculus Evaluates the technical conception and mathematical construction of the geometrical method Reveals a previously unrecognized Liebnizian programmatic cohesion in early calculus Provides a beautifully written work of outstanding original scholarship

Transcendental Curves in the Leibnizian Calculus

Transcendental Curves in the Leibnizian Calculus

Author: Viktor Blasjo

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012813237X

Category: Curves, Algebraic

Page: 282

View: 106

Transcendental Curves in the Leibnizian Calculus analyzes a mathematical and philosophical conflict between classical and early modern mathematics. In the late 17th century, mathematics was at the brink of an identity crisis. For millennia, mathematical meaning and ontology had been anchored in geometrical constructions, as epitomized by Euclid's ruler and compass. As late as 1637, Descartes had placed himself squarely in this tradition when he justified his new technique of identifying curves with equations by means of certain curve-tracing instruments, thereby bringing together the ancient constructive tradition and modern algebraic methods in a satisfying marriage. But rapid advances in the new fields of infinitesimal calculus and mathematical mechanics soon ruined his grand synthesis. Descartes's scheme left out transcendental curves, i.e. curves with no polynomial equation, but in the course of these subsequent developments such curves emerged as indispensable. It was becoming harder and harder to juggle cutting-edge mathematics and ancient conceptions of its foundations at the same time, yet leading mathematicians, such as Leibniz felt compelled to do precisely this. The new mathematics fit more naturally an analytical conception of curves than a construction-based one, yet no one wanted to betray the latter, as this was seen as virtually tantamount to stop doing mathematics altogether. The credibility and authority of mathematics depended on it. Brings to light this underlying and often implicit complex of concerns that permeate early calculus Evaluates the technical conception and mathematical construction of the geometrical method Reveals a previously unrecognized Liebnizian programmatic cohesion in early calculus Provides a beautifully written work of outstanding original scholarship

The Oxford Handbook of Leibniz

The Oxford Handbook of Leibniz

Author: Maria Rosa Antognazza

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190913649

Category: Philosophy

Page: 928

View: 947

The extraordinary breadth and depth of Leibniz's intellectual vision commands ever increasing attention. As more texts gradually emerge from seemingly bottomless archives, new facets of his contribution to an astonishing variety of fields come to light. This volume provides a uniquely comprehensive, systematic, and up-to-date appraisal of Leibniz's thought thematically organized around its diverse but interrelated aspects. Discussion of his philosophical system naturally takes place of pride. A cluster of original essays revisit his logic, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of nature, moral and political philosophy, and philosophy of religion. The scope of the volume, however, goes beyond that of a philosophical collection to embrace all the main features of Leibniz's thought and activity. Contributions are offered on Leibniz as a mathematician (including not only his calculus but also determinant theory, symmetric functions, the dyadic, the analysis situs, probability and statistics); on Leibniz as a scientist (physics and also optics, cosmology, geology, physiology, medicine, and chemistry); on his technical innovations (the calculating machine and the technology of mining, as well as other discoveries); on his work as an 'intelligencer' and cultural networker, as jurist, historian, editor of sources and librarian; on his views on Europe's political future, religious toleration, and ecclesiastical reunification; on his proposals for political, administrative, economic, and social reform. In so doing, the volume serves as a unique cross-disciplinary point of contact for the many domains to which Leibniz contributed. By assembling leading specialists on all these topics, it offers the most rounded picture of Leibniz's endeavors currently available.

The Tangled Origins of the Leibnizian Calculus

The Tangled Origins of the Leibnizian Calculus

Author: Richard C. Brown

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814390804

Category: Mathematics

Page: 333

View: 949

This book is a detailed study of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz''s creation of calculus from 1673 to the 1680s. We examine and analyze the mathematics in several of his early manuscripts as well as various articles published in the Acta Eruditorum. It studies some of the other lesser known OC calculiOCO Leibniz created such as the Analysis Situs, delves into aspects of his logic, and gives an overview of his efforts to construct a Universal Characteristic, a goal that has its distant origin in the Ars Magna of the 13th century Catalan philosopher Raymond Llull, whose work enjoyed a renewed popularity in the century and a half prior to Leibniz. This book also touches upon a new look at the priority controversy with Newton and a Kuhnian interpretation of the nature of mathematical change. This book may be the only integrated treatment based on recent research and should be a thought-provoking contribution to the history of mathematics for scholars and students, interested in either Leibniz''s mathematical achievement or general issues in the field."

The Tangled Origins of the Leibnizian Calculus

The Tangled Origins of the Leibnizian Calculus

Author: Richard C Brown

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814401616

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

View: 387

This book is a detailed study of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's creation of calculus from 1673 to the 1680s. We examine and analyze the mathematics in several of his early manuscripts as well as various articles published in the Acta Eruditorum. It studies some of the other lesser known “calculi” Leibniz created such as the Analysis Situs, delves into aspects of his logic, and gives an overview of his efforts to construct a Universal Characteristic, a goal that has its distant origin in the Ars Magna of the 13th century Catalan philosopher Raymond Llull, whose work enjoyed a renewed popularity in the century and a half prior to Leibniz. This book also touches upon a new look at the priority controversy with Newton and a Kuhnian interpretation of the nature of mathematical change. This book may be the only integrated treatment based on recent research and should be a thought-provoking contribution to the history of mathematics for scholars and students, interested in either Leibniz's mathematical achievement or general issues in the field. Contents:Evolution or Revolution in MathematicsIssues in Seventeenth Century MathematicsIsaac Barrow: A Foil to LeibnizA Young Central European PolymathFirst Steps in MathematicsThe Creation of CalculusLogicThe Universal CharacteristicThe Baroque Cultural ContextEpilogueSome Concluding Remarks on Mathematical ChangeAppendices:A: A Transmutation Theorem of LeibnizB: Leibniz's Series Quadrature of a ConicC: Syllogistic LogicD: The Vis Viva DisputeE: Some Applications of Curves and Neusis in Greek GeometryF: InfinitesimalsA Note on the Author Readership: Advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and researchers in mathematics, history of mathematics or history of science. Keywords:Leibniz;Calculus;Geometry;17th Century MathematicsKey Features:The thoroughness and comprehensiveness of the treatment of this book are based on recent researchTechnical details of the mathematics are carefully dealt with instead of just being summarized for the general readerNo other work on the development of calculus includes a description and analysis of the Baroque/Renaissance atmosphere of fascination with symbols, emblems, Real Characters and philosophical languages which motivated both Leibniz's mathematics and his search for the Universal Characteristic

Leibniz and the Structure of Sciences

Leibniz and the Structure of Sciences

Author: Vincenzo De Risi

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030255725

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 635

The book offers a collection of essays on various aspects of Leibniz’s scientific thought, written by historians of science and world-leading experts on Leibniz. The essays deal with a vast array of topics on the exact sciences: Leibniz’s logic, mereology, the notion of infinity and cardinality, the foundations of geometry, the theory of curves and differential geometry, and finally dynamics and general epistemology. Several chapters attempt a reading of Leibniz’s scientific works through modern mathematical tools, and compare Leibniz’s results in these fields with 19th- and 20th-Century conceptions of them. All of them have special care in framing Leibniz’s work in historical context, and sometimes offer wider historical perspectives that go much beyond Leibniz’s researches. A special emphasis is given to effective mathematical practice rather than purely epistemological thought. The book is addressed to all scholars of the exact sciences who have an interest in historical research and Leibniz in particular, and may be useful to historians of mathematics, physics, and epistemology, mathematicians with historical interests, and philosophers of science at large.

The History of Continua

The History of Continua

Author: Stewart Shapiro

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198809647

Category: Mathematics

Page: 593

View: 248

Mathematical and philosophical thought about continuity has changed considerably over the ages, from Aristotle's insistence that a continuum is a unified whole, to the dominant account today, that a continuum is composed of infinitely many points. This book explores the key ideas and debates concerning continuity over more than 2500 years.

Historical Scientific Instruments in Contemporary Education

Historical Scientific Instruments in Contemporary Education

Author:

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004499676

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 334

When science’s “black boxes” are pried open, its workings become accessible. Like time-travellers into history but grounded in today’s cultures, learners interact directly with authentic instruments and replicas. Chapters describe educational experiences sparked through collaborations interrelating museum, school and university.

The Impossibility of Squaring the Circle in the 17th Century

The Impossibility of Squaring the Circle in the 17th Century

Author: Davide Crippa

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030016388

Category: Mathematics

Page: 184

View: 823

This book is about James Gregory’s attempt to prove that the quadrature of the circle, the ellipse and the hyperbola cannot be found algebraically. Additonally, the subsequent debates that ensued between Gregory, Christiaan Huygens and G.W. Leibniz are presented and analyzed. These debates eventually culminated with the impossibility result that Leibniz appended to his unpublished treatise on the arithmetical quadrature of the circle. The author shows how the controversy around the possibility of solving the quadrature of the circle by certain means (algebraic curves) pointed to metamathematical issues, particularly to the completeness of algebra with respect to geometry. In other words, the question underlying the debate on the solvability of the circle-squaring problem may be thus phrased: can finite polynomial equations describe any geometrical quantity? As the study reveals, this question was central in the early days of calculus, when transcendental quantities and operations entered the stage. Undergraduate and graduate students in the history of science, in philosophy and in mathematics will find this book appealing as well as mathematicians and historians with broad interests in the history of mathematics.

Anachronisms in the History of Mathematics

Anachronisms in the History of Mathematics

Author: Niccol- Guicciardini

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108834964

Category: History

Page: 393

View: 702

Discover essays by leading scholars on the history of mathematics from ancient to modern times in European and non-European cultures.

The History of Mathematics: A Source-Based Approach, Volume 2

The History of Mathematics: A Source-Based Approach, Volume 2

Author: June Barrow-Green

Publisher: American Mathematical Society

ISBN: 9781470443825

Category: Mathematics

Page: 687

View: 183

The History of Mathematics: A Source-Based Approach is a comprehensive history of the development of mathematics. This, the second volume of a two-volume set, takes the reader from the invention of the calculus to the beginning of the twentieth century. The initial discoverers of calculus are given thorough investigation, and special attention is also paid to Newton's Principia. The eighteenth century is presented as primarily a period of the development of calculus, particularly in differential equations and applications of mathematics. Mathematics blossomed in the nineteenth century and the book explores progress in geometry, analysis, foundations, algebra, and applied mathematics, especially celestial mechanics. The approach throughout is markedly historiographic: How do we know what we know? How do we read the original documents? What are the institutions supporting mathematics? Who are the people of mathematics? The reader learns not only the history of mathematics, but also how to think like a historian. The two-volume set was designed as a textbook for the authors' acclaimed year-long course at the Open University. It is, in addition to being an innovative and insightful textbook, an invaluable resource for students and scholars of the history of mathematics. The authors, each among the most distinguished mathematical historians in the world, have produced over fifty books and earned scholarly and expository prizes from the major mathematical societies of the English-speaking world.

Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics

Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Maria Zack

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030312985

Category: Mathematics

Page: 172

View: 956

This volume contains ten papers that have been collected by the Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics/Société canadienne d’histoire et de philosophie des mathématiques. It showcases rigorously-reviewed contemporary scholarship on an interesting variety of topics in the history and philosophy of mathematics from the seventeenth century to the modern era. The volume begins with an exposition of the life and work of Professor Bolesław Sobociński. It then moves on to cover a collection of topics about twentieth-century philosophy of mathematics, including Fred Sommers’s creation of Traditional Formal Logic and Alexander Grothendieck’s work as a starting point for discussing analogies between commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. Continuing the focus on the philosophy of mathematics, the next selections discuss the mathematization of biology and address the study of numerical cognition. The volume then moves to discussing various aspects of mathematics education, including Charles Davies’s early book on the teaching of mathematics and the use of Gaussian Lemniscates in the classroom. A collection of papers on the history of mathematics in the nineteenth century closes out the volume, presenting a discussion of Gauss’s “Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus” and a comparison of the geometric works of Desargues and La Hire. Written by leading scholars in the field, these papers are accessible not only to mathematicians and students of the history and philosophy of mathematics, but also to anyone with a general interest in mathematics.