Vector calculus is the fundamental language of mathematical physics. It pro vides a way to describe physical quantities in three-dimensional space and the way in which these quantities vary. Many topics in the physical sciences can be analysed mathematically using the techniques of vector calculus. These top ics include fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and electromagnetism, all of which involve a description of vector and scalar quantities in three dimensions. This book assumes no previous knowledge of vectors. However, it is assumed that the reader has a knowledge of basic calculus, including differentiation, integration and partial differentiation. Some knowledge of linear algebra is also required, particularly the concepts of matrices and determinants. The book is designed to be self-contained, so that it is suitable for a pro gramme of individual study. Each of the eight chapters introduces a new topic, and to facilitate understanding of the material, frequent reference is made to physical applications. The physical nature of the subject is clarified with over sixty diagrams, which provide an important aid to the comprehension of the new concepts. Following the introduction of each new topic, worked examples are provided. It is essential that these are studied carefully, so that a full un derstanding is developed before moving ahead. Like much of mathematics, each section of the book is built on the foundations laid in the earlier sections and chapters.
Methods used for regional development analysis are employed mainly to make forecasts and comparisons. Forecasting models of various types (e.g. econometric models) are usually used for forecasting. Recently, vector-autoregressive models (VAR) have become popular. These models were proposed by Sims in 1980. On the contrary, taxonomic methods (that are in the center of attention as far as the present publication is concerned) are most often employed to make comparisons. Linear ordering methods, including standard methods, are the most popular among ta- nomic methods. They are based on different distance and similarity measures, which leads to the fact that they do not always provide reliable information. When, for example, one construes the standard for a base year and then compares it with data for other years, it may turn out that the measure determined will have worse values than the standard for a real object (region, micro region) although this object is better from the standard. Hence, one must look for new methods employed in regional development analysis or improve hitherto existing ones in such a way so that information obtained re?ects the reality to a larger extent. The main aim of the present publication is to work out methodological basis for regional development analysis based on vector calculus together with assumptions about computer system supporting the implementation of the method suggested.
Building on previous texts in the Modular Mathematics series, in particular 'Vectors in Two or Three Dimensions' and 'Calculus and ODEs', this book introduces the student to the concept of vector calculus. It provides an overview of some of the key techniques as well as examining functions of more than one variable, including partial differentiation and multiple integration. Undergraduates who already have a basic understanding of calculus and vectors, will find this text provides tools with which to progress onto further studies; scientists who need an overview of higher order differential equations will find it a useful introduction and basic reference.
Basic Insights in Vector Calculus provides an introduction to three famous theorems of vector calculus, Green's theorem, Stokes' theorem and the divergence theorem (also known as Gauss's theorem). Material is presented so that results emerge in a natural way. As in classical physics, we begin with descriptions of flows.The book will be helpful for undergraduates in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, in programs that require vector calculus. At the same time, it also provides some of the mathematical background essential for more advanced contexts which include, for instance, the physics and engineering of continuous media and fields, axiomatically rigorous vector analysis, and the mathematical theory of differential forms.There is a Supplement on mathematical understanding. The approach invites one to advert to one's own experience in mathematics and, that way, identify elements of understanding that emerge in all levels of learning and teaching.Prerequisites are competence in single-variable calculus. Some familiarity with partial derivatives and the multi-variable chain rule would be helpful. But for the convenience of the reader we review essentials of single- and multi-variable calculus needed for the three main theorems of vector calculus.Carefully developed Problems and Exercises are included, for many of which guidance or hints are provided.
Discover the clear approach and learning support you need to truly understand calculus with MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS, 12th Edition by award-winning authors Larson and Edwards. This edition effectively presents and demonstrates the concepts and rules of calculus using a thoroughly updated and refined learning experience specifically designed to remove any typical barriers to learning. New Big Ideas of Calculus notes present the overarching ideas behind chapter topics to place the principles you're learning within a meaningful context. Annotated examples and Concept Checks further reinforce your understanding. A variety of exercises, including visually driven exercises, provide the resources you need to develop a deeper conceptual understanding of calculus. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Separation of the elements of classical mechanics into kinematics and dynamics is an uncommon tutorial approach, but the author uses it to advantage in this two-volume set. Students gain a mastery of kinematics first – a solid foundation for the later study of the free-body formulation of the dynamics problem. A key objective of these volumes, which present a vector treatment of the principles of mechanics, is to help the student gain confidence in transforming problems into appropriate mathematical language that may be manipulated to give useful physical conclusions or specific numerical results. In the first volume, the elements of vector calculus and the matrix algebra are reviewed in appendices. Unusual mathematical topics, such as singularity functions and some elements of tensor analysis, are introduced within the text. A logical and systematic building of well-known kinematic concepts, theorems, and formulas, illustrated by examples and problems, is presented offering insights into both fundamentals and applications. Problems amplify the material and pave the way for advanced study of topics in mechanical design analysis, advanced kinematics of mechanisms and analytical dynamics, mechanical vibrations and controls, and continuum mechanics of solids and fluids. Volume I of Principles of Engineering Mechanics provides the basis for a stimulating and rewarding one-term course for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students specializing in mechanics, engineering science, engineering physics, applied mathematics, materials science, and mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Professionals working in related fields of applied mathematics will find it a practical review and a quick reference for questions involving basic kinematics.
For one semester, sophomore-level courses in Vector Calculus and Multivariable Calculus. This brief book presents an accessible treatment of multivariable calculus with an early emphasis on linear algebra as a tool. The organization of the text draws strong analogies with the basic ideas of elementary calculus (derivative, integral, and fundamental theorem). Traditional in approach, it is written with an assumption that the student may have computing facilities for two- and three-dimensional graphics, and for doing symbolic algebra.